Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $87.00

1 year subscription

USD  $116.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $165.00

2 year subscription

USD  $215.00

Paralympic wheelchair curling is an adapted version of Olympic curling played by individuals with spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, and lower extremity amputations. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there has been no experimental or computational research published regarding the biomechanics of wheelchair curling. Accordingly, the objective of the present research was to quantify the angular joint kinematics and dynamics of a Paralympic wheelchair curler throughout the delivery. The angular joint kinematics of the upper extremity were experimentally measured using an inertial measurement unit system; the translational kinematics of the curling stone were additionally evaluated with optical motion capture. The experimental kinematics were mathematically optimized to satisfy the kinematic constraints of a subject-specific multibody biomechanical model. The optimized kinematics were subsequently used to compute the resultant joint moments via inverse dynamics analysis. The main biomechanical demands throughout the delivery (ie, in terms of both kinematic and dynamic variables) were about the hip and shoulder joints, followed sequentially by the elbow and wrist. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to wheelchair curling delivery technique, musculoskeletal modeling, and forward dynamic simulations.

Laschowski is with the Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Mehrabi is with the Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. McPhee is with the Departments of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering and Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Address author correspondence to Brock Laschowski at blaschow@uwaterloo.ca.
  • 1.

    World Curling Federation. The rules of curling and rules of competition. http://www.worldcurling.org/rules-and-regulations. Published October 2015. Accessed May 2016.

    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Webborn N, Willick S, Emery CA. The injury experience at the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. Clin J Sport Med. 2012;22:3–9. PubMed doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e318243309f

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Roberston DGE, Caldwell GE, Hamill J, Kamen G, Whittlesey SN. Research Methods in Biomechanics. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Kirshblum SC, Burns SP, Biering-Sorensen F, et al. International standards for neurological classification of spinal cord injury (revised 2011). J Spinal Cord Med. 2011;34:535–546. PubMed doi: 10.1179/204577211X13207446293695

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Roetenberg D. Inertial and Magnetic Sensing of Human Motion. [PhD dissertation]. Enschede, The Netherlands: University of Twente; 2006.

  • 6.

    Cloete T, Scheffer C. Repeatability of an off-the-shelf, full body inertial motion capture system during clinical gait analysis. Paper presented at: 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society; 2010: 5125–5128.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Zhang JT, Novak AC, Brouwer B, Li Q. Concurrent validation of Xsens MVN measurement of lower limb joint angular kinematics. Physiol Meas. 2013;34:N63–N69. PubMed doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/34/8/N63

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Laschowski B, McPhee J. Body segment parameters of Paralympic athletes from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sports Eng. 2016;19:155–162 10.1007/s12283-016-0200-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Maeno N. Dynamics and curl ratio of a curling stone. Sports Eng. 2014;17:33–41. 10.1007/s12283-013-0129-8

  • 10.

    Lebiedowska MK. Dynamic properties of human limb segments. In: KarwowskiW, ed. International Encyclopaedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2006:315–319.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Rapoport S, Mizrahi J, Kimmel E, Verbitsky O, Isakov E. Constant and variable stiffness and damping of the leg joints in human hopping. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering.2003;125:507–514. PubMed doi: 10.1115/1.1590358

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Balzerson D, Banerjee J, McPhee J. A three-dimensional forward dynamic model of the golf swing optimized for ball carry distance. Sports Eng. 2016;19:237–250. 10.1007/s12283-016-0197-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 116 116 21
Full Text Views 4 4 1
PDF Downloads 0 0 0