Accuracy and Reliability of Marker-Based Approaches to Scale the Pelvis, Thigh, and Shank Segments in Musculoskeletal Models

in Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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Gait analysis together with musculoskeletal modeling is widely used for research. In the absence of medical images, surface marker locations are used to scale a generic model to the individual’s anthropometry. Studies evaluating the accuracy and reliability of different scaling approaches in a pediatric and/or clinical population have not yet been conducted and, therefore, formed the aim of this study. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) and motion capture data were collected from 12 participants with cerebral palsy and 6 typically developed participants. Accuracy was assessed by comparing the scaled model’s segment measures to the corresponding MRI measures, whereas reliability was assessed by comparing the model’s segments scaled with the experimental marker locations from the first and second motion capture session. The inclusion of joint centers into the scaling process significantly increased the accuracy of thigh and shank segment length estimates compared to scaling with markers alone. Pelvis scaling approaches which included the pelvis depth measure led to the highest errors compared to the MRI measures. Reliability was similar between scaling approaches with mean ICC of 0.97. The pelvis should be scaled using pelvic width and height and the thigh and shank segment should be scaled using the proximal and distal joint centers.

Kainz and Carty are with Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, School of Allied Health Sciences, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia; and Queensland Children’s Gait Laboratory, Queensland Paediatric Rehabilitation Service, Children’s Health Queensland Hospital and Health Services, Brisbane, Australia. Kainz is currently at the Human Movement Biomechanics Research Group, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Hoang and Lloyd are with Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, School of Allied Health Sciences, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia. Stockton is with the Department of Medical Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Children’s Health Queensland, Lady Cilento Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. Boyd is with Queensland Cerebral Palsy and Rehabilitation Research Centre, School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Kainz and Hoang are joint first authors.

Address author correspondence to Hans Kainz at hans.kainz@kuleuven.be.

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