Patients With Medial Knee Osteoarthritis Reduce Medial Knee Contact Forces by Altering Trunk Kinematics, Progression Speed, and Stepping Strategy During Stair Ascent and Descent: A Pilot Study

in Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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Medial knee loading during stair negotiation in individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis has only been reported in terms of joint moments, which may underestimate the knee loading. This study assessed knee contact forces (KCF) and contact pressures during different stair negotiation strategies. Motion analysis was performed in 5 individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis (52.8 [11.0] y) and 8 healthy subjects (51.0 [13.4] y) while ascending and descending a staircase. KCF and contact pressures were calculated using a multibody knee model while performing step-over-step at controlled and self-selected speed, and step-by-step strategies. At controlled speed, individuals with osteoarthritis showed decreased peak KCF during stair ascent but not during stair descent. Osteoarthritis patients showed higher trunk rotations in frontal and sagittal planes than controls. At lower self-selected speed, patients also presented reduced medial KCF during stair descent. While performing step-by-step, medial contact pressures decreased in osteoarthritis patients during stair descent. Osteoarthritis patients reduced their speed and increased trunk flexion and lean angles to reduce KCF during stair ascent. These trunk changes were less safe during stair descent where a reduced speed was more effective. Individuals should be recommended to use step-over-step during stair ascent and step-by-step during stair descent to reduce medial KCF.

Meireles and Jonkers are with the Department of Kinesiology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Reeves is with the Research Centre for Musculoskeletal Science and Sports Medicine, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom. Jones is with Health Sciences Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford, United Kingdom. Smith and Thelen are with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Meireles (susanameiras@gmail.com) is corresponding author.

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