The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between maximal effort force production and anthropometric measures of upper-arm volume. Thirty healthy young participants (15 women) performed 5 isokinetic concentric and eccentric maximal effort elbow flexor/extensor contractions on separate days. Measures of arm length, circumference, and skinfold/subcutaneous fat thickness were used to obtain a measure of arm volume, modeled as 2 separate right-angle frustra. Single-variable regression analyses demonstrated significant (P < .001) second-order polynomial relationships between maximal effort elbow flexor and extensor force with arm volume (r2 = .63–.86). The major findings demonstrated that strong and positive relations between maximal force production and estimates of limb volume can be observed using nonlinear modeling and a closer geometric representation of the exercising limb.
Pincivero is with the Program in Kinesiology, University of Guelph-Humber, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Polen and Byrd are with the Department of Kinesiology, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH.