Effectiveness and Reliability of Foot Orthoses on Impact Loading and Lower Limb Kinematics When Running at Preferred and Nonpreferred Speeds

in Journal of Applied Biomechanics
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  • 1 Beijing Sport University
  • 2 China Astronaut Research and Training Center
  • 3 Shenyang Sport University
  • 4 Li Ning Sports Science Research Center
  • 5 The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
  • 6 Nanyang Technological University
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This study examined the effect of foot orthoses used on ground reaction forces, ankle, and knee kinematics when running at preferred and nonpreferred speeds. Sixteen runners ran on instrumented treadmills at various speeds (90%, 100%, and 110% of preferred speed) when wearing arch-support and flat-control orthoses. Two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the mean and coefficient of variation of all variables. Results indicated that arch-support orthoses experienced larger maximum loading rates than flat-control orthoses (P = .017, 95% CI, 2.22 to 19.53). Slower speed was related to smaller loading rates (preferred: P = .002, 95% CI, −17.02 to −4.20; faster: P = .003, 95% CI, −29.78 to −6.17), shorter stride length (preferred: P < .001, 95% CI, −0.204 to −0.090; faster: P < .001, 95% CI, −0.382 to −0.237), and longer contact time (preferred: P < .001, 95% CI, 0.006–0.021; faster: 95% CI, 0.012–0.042). In arch-support condition, preferred speed induced higher stride length coefficient of variation (P = .046, 95% CI, 0.035–1.117) than faster speed, while displaying no differences in flat-control condition. These findings suggest that the use of arch-support orthoses would influence impact loading, but not spatial-temporal and joint kinematics in recreational runners.

Wang is with Beijing Sport University, Beijing, China; and with China Astronaut Research and Training Center, Beijing, China. Lam is with the Department of Kinesiology, Shenyang Sport University, Shenyang, China. Lam, Wong, Park, and Tan are with Li Ning Sports Science Research Center, Beijing, China. Wong, Park and Leung are with the Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China. Tan is with the Physical Education and Sports Science Academic Group, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

Lam (gilbertlam@li-ning.com.cn) is corresponding author.
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