Obese Youth Demonstrate Altered Landing Knee Mechanics Unrelated to Lower-Extremity Peak Torque When Compared With Healthy Weight Youth

in Journal of Applied Biomechanics
View More View Less
  • 1 The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center
  • 2 The Ohio State University
  • 3 Tampa Bay Rays Baseball Organization
  • 4 Sidra Medicine
  • 5 Weill Cornell Medicine–Qatar
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $88.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $118.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $168.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $224.00

Obese (OB) youth demonstrate altered knee mechanics and worse lower-extremity performance compared with healthy weight (HW) youth. Our objectives were to compare sagittal plane knee landing mechanics between OB and HW youth and to examine the associations of knee and hip extension peak torque with landing mechanics in OB youth. Twenty-four OB and 24 age- and sex-matched HW youth participated. Peak torque was measured and normalized to leg lean mass. Peak knee flexion angle and peak internal knee extension moment were measured during a single-leg hop landing. Paired t tests, Pearson correlation coefficients, and Bonferroni corrections were used. OB youth demonstrated worse performance and lower knee extension (OB: 12.76 [1.38], HW: 14.03 [2.08], P = .03) and hip extension (OB: 8.59 [3.13], HW: 11.10 [2.89], P = .005) peak torque. Furthermore, OB youth demonstrated lower peak knee flexion angles (OB: 48.89 [45.41 to 52.37], HW: 56.07 [52.59 to 59.55], P = .02) and knee extension moments (OB: −1.73 [−1.89 to −1.57], HW: −2.21 [−2.37 to −2.05], P = .0001) during landing compared with HW youth. Peak torque measures were not correlated with peak knee flexion angle nor internal knee extension moment during landing in either group (P > .01). OB youth demonstrated altered landing mechanics compared with HW youth. However, no associations among peak torque measurements and knee landing mechanics were present.

Briggs, King, and Schmitt are with the Sports Medicine Research Institute, Jameson Crane Sports Medicine Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Briggs is also with the Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Schmitt is also with the Division of Physical Therapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Medicine The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. Spech and Paponetti are with the Doctor of Physical Therapy Program, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA. McNally is with the Tampa Bay Rays Baseball Organization, St. Petersburg, FL, USA. Bout-Tabaku is with the Division of Pediatric Rheumatology, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar; and the Weill Cornell Medicine–Qatar, Doha, Qatar.

Briggs (Matt.Briggs@osumc.edu) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Flegal KM, Kruszon-Moran D, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Ogden CL. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. J Am Med Assoc. 2016;315(21):22842291. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Allen KD, Golightly YM. State of the evidence. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2015;27(3):276283. PubMed ID: 25775186 doi:

  • 3.

    Raud B, Gay C, Guiguet-Auclair C, et al. Level of obesity is directly associated with the clinical and functional consequences of knee osteoarthritis. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):17. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Gelber AC, Hochberg MC, Mead LA, Wang NY, Wigley FM, Klag MJ. Body mass index in young men and the risk of subsequent knee and hip osteoarthritis. Am J Med. 1999;107(6):542548. PubMed ID: 10625021 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Martin KR, Kuh D, Harris TB, Guralnik JM, Coggon D, Wills AK. Body mass index, occupational activity, and leisure-time physical activity: An exploration of risk factors and modifiers for knee osteoarthritis in the 1946 British birth cohort. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14(1):219. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Widhalm HK, Marlovits S, Welsch GH, et al. Obesity-related juvenile form of cartilage lesions: A new affliction in the knees of morbidly obese children and adolescents. Eur Radiol. 2012;22(3):672681. http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84856620524&partnerID=40&md5=e549b7431406d44924b46a28e66affd7. PubMed ID: 21947483 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Widhalm HK, Seemann R, Hamboeck M, et al. Osteoarthritis in morbidly obese children and adolescents, an age-matched controlled study. Knee Surg Sport Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016:24(3):644652. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Naimark A, Walker AM, Meenan RF. Obesity and knee osteoarthritis. The Framingham study. Ann Intern Med. 1988;109(1):1824. PubMed ID: 3377350 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Harding GT, Hubley-Kozey CL, Dunbar MJ, Stanish WD, Astephen Wilson JL. Body mass index affects knee joint mechanics during gait differently with and without moderate knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartil. 2012;20(11):12341242. PubMed ID: 22902710 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Felson DT, Lawrence RC, Dieppe PA, et al. Osteoarthritis: New insights. Part 1: The disease and its risk factors. In: Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol 133. American College of Physicians; 2000:635646. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Teichtahl A, Wluka A, Cicuttini FM. Abnormal biomechanics: A precursor or result of knee osteoarthritis? Br J Sports Med. 2003;37(4):289290. PubMed ID: 12893709 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Pincivero DM, Lephart SM, Karunakara RG. Relation between open and closed kinematic chain assessment of knee strength and functional performance. Clin J Sport Med. 1997;7(1):1116. PubMed ID: 9117519 doi:.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Favre J, Jolles BM. Gait analysis of patients with knee osteoarthritis highlights a pathological mechanical pathway and provides a basis for therapeutic interventions. EFORT Open Rev. 2016;1(10):368374. PubMed ID: 28461915 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Kaufman KR, Hughes C, Morrey BF, Morrey M, An KN. Gait characteristics of patients with knee osteoarthritis. In: Journal of Biomechanics. Vol 34. Elsevier; 2001:907915. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Vakula MN, Fisher KL, Garcia SA, et al. Quadriceps impairment is associated with gait mechanics in young adults with obesity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019;51(5):951961. PubMed ID: 30629047 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Pamukoff DN, Lewek MD, Blackburn JT. Greater vertical loading rate in obese compared to normal weight young adults. Clin Biomech. 2016;33:6165. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Lerner ZF, Board WJ, Browning RC. Effects of obesity on lower extremity muscle function during walking at two speeds. Gait Posture. 2014;39(3):978984. PubMed ID: 24412270 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    MacLean KFE, Callaghan JP, Maly MR. Effect of obesity on knee joint biomechanics during gait in young adults. Cogent Med. 2016;3(1):1173778. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Strutzenberger G, Richter A, Schneider M, Mündermann A, Schwameder H. Effects of obesity on the biomechanics of stair-walking in children. Gait Posture. 2011;34(1):119125. PubMed ID: 21536442 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    McMillan AG, Pulver AM, Collier DN, Williams DS. Sagittal and frontal plane joint mechanics throughout the stance phase of walking in adolescents who are obese. Gait Posture. 2010;32(2):263268. PubMed ID: 20573511 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Shultz SP, Byrne NM, Hills AP. Musculoskeletal function and obesity: implications for physical activity. Curr Obes Rep. 2014;3(3):355360. PubMed ID: 26626767 doi:.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    McMillan AG, Phillips KA, Collier DN, Blaise Williams DS. Frontal and sagittal plane biomechanics during drop jump landing in boys who are obese. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2010;22(1):3441. PubMed ID: 20142703 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Briggs MS, Bout-Tabaku S, McNally MP, Chaudhari AMW, Best TM, Schmitt LC. Relationships between standing frontal-plane knee alignment and dynamic knee joint loading during walking and jogging in youth who are obese. Phys Ther. 2017;97(5):571580. PubMed ID: 28339815 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Theis N, Le Warne M, Morrison SC, Drechsler W, Mahaffey R. Absolute and allometrically scaled lower-limb strength differences between children with overweight/obesity and typical weight children. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33(12):32763283. PubMed ID: 31498225 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Briggs MS, Bout-Tabaku S, Buell J, White S, Rosenstein PF, Schmitt LC. A preliminary evaluation of the associations among functional performance tasks and quality of life in obese and healthy weight youth. J Sports Sci. 2019;37(1):2028. PubMed ID: 29806947 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Blimkie CJ, Sale DG, Bar-Or O. Voluntary strength, evoked twitch contractile properties and motor unit activation of knee extensors in obese and non-obese adolescent males. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1990;61(3–4):313318. PubMed ID: 2282918 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Blimkie CJ, Ebbesen B, Macdougall D, Bar-Or O, Sale D. Voluntary and electrically evoked strength characteristics of obese and nonobese preadolescent boys. Hum Biol. 1989;61(4):515532. PubMed ID: 2591911

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Maffiuletti NA, Jubeau M, Munzinger U, et al. Differences in quadriceps muscle strength and fatigue between lean and obese subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;101(1):5159. PubMed ID: 17476522 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Lawrence RK, Kernozek TW, Miller EJ, Torry MR, Reuteman P. Influences of hip external rotation strength on knee mechanics during single-leg drop landings in females. Clin Biomech. 2008;23(6):806813. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Negrete R, Brophy J. The relationship between isokinetic open and closed chain lower extremity strength and functional performance. J Sport Rehabil. 2000;9(1):4661. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Östenberg H, Roos H, Ekdah H, Roos H. Isokinetic knee extensor strength and functional performance in healthy female soccer players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1998;8(5):257264. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Kea J, Kramer J, Forwell L, Birmingham T. Hip abduction-adduction strength and one-leg hop tests: test-retest reliability and relationship to function in elite ice hockey players. J Orthop Sport Phys Ther. 2013;31(8):446455. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Petschnig R, Baron R, Albrecht M. The relationship between isokinetic quadriceps strength test and hop tests for distance and one-legged vertical jump test following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Sport Phys Ther. 1998;28(1):2331. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Wilk KE, Romaniello WT, Soscia SM, Arrigo CA, Andrews JR. The relationship between subjective knee scores, isokinetic testing, and functional testing in the ACL-reconstructed knee. J Orthop Sport Phys Ther. 1994;20(2):6073. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Bosco C, Ito A, Komi PV, et al. Neuromuscular function and mechanical efficiency of human leg extensor muscles during jumping exercises. Acta Physiol Scand. 1982;114(4):543550. PubMed ID: 7136782 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Augustsson J, Thomee R. Ability of closed and open kinetic chain tests of muscular strength. J Med. 2000;10(3):164168.

  • 37.

    Greenberger HB, Paterno MV. Relationship of knee extensor strength and hopping test performance in the assessment of lower extremity function. J Orthop Sport Phys Ther. 1995;22(5):202206. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Benjaminse A, Habu A, Sell TC, et al. Fatigue alters lower extremity kinematics during a single-leg stop-jump task. Knee Surg Sport Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16(4):400407. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Malloy PJ, Morgan AM, Meinerz CM, Geiser CF, Kipp K. Hip external rotator strength is associated with better dynamic control of the lower extremity during landing tasks. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(1):282291. PubMed ID: 26110347 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Palmieri-Smith RM, Kreinbrink J, Ashton-Miller JA, Wojtys EM. Quadriceps inhibition induced by an experimental knee joint effusion affects knee joint mechanics during a single-legged drop landing. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(8):12691275. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Cashman GE. The effect of weak hip abductors or external rotators on knee valgus kinematics in healthy subjects: A systematic review. J Sport Rehabil. 2012;21(3):273284. PubMed ID: 22894982 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Powell A, Teichtahl AJ, Wluka AE, Cicuttini FM. Obesity: a preventable risk factor for large joint osteoarthritis which may act through biomechanical factors. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(1):45. PubMed ID: 15618330 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Runhaar J, Koes BW, Clockaerts S, Bierma-Zeinstra SMA. A systematic review on changed biomechanics of lower extremities in obese individuals: a possible role in development of osteoarthritis. Obes Rev. 2011;12(12):10711082. PubMed ID: 21812903 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Detecto. https://detecto.com/company/community. Accessed July 18, 2019.

  • 45.

    The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Body Mass Index (BMI) and Z-score calculation in children. https://zscore.research.chop.edu/. Accessed July 22, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Guo SS, et al. 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital Health Stat 11. 2002;(246):1190.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Wang Y. Is obesity associated with early sexual maturation? A comparison of the association in American boys versus girls. Pediatrics. 2002;110(5):903910. PubMed ID: 12415028 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Jacobs C, Uhl TL, Seeley M, Sterling W, Goodrich L. Strength and fatigability of the dominant and nondominant hip abductors. J Athl Train. 2005;40(3):203206.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Jamison ST, Pan X, Chaudhari AMW. Knee moments during run-to-cut maneuvers are associated with lateral trunk positioning. J Biomech. 2012;45(11):18811885. PubMed ID: 22704608 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Andriacchi TP, Alexander EJ, Toney MK, Dyrby C, Sum J. A point cluster method for in vivo motion analysis: applied to a study of knee kinematics. J Biomech Eng. 1998;120(6):743. PubMed ID: 10412458 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Camomilla V, Cereatti A, Vannozzi G, Cappozzo A. An optimized protocol for hip joint centre determination using the functional method. J Biomech. 2006;39(6):10961106. PubMed ID: 16549099 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Benoit DL, Ramsey DK, Lamontagne M, Xu L, Wretenberg P, Renström P. Effect of skin movement artifact on knee kinematics during gait and cutting motions measured in vivo. Gait Posture. 2006;24(2):152164. PubMed ID: 16260140 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Suman OE, Spies RJ, Celis MM, Mlcak RP, Herndon DN. Effects of a 12-wk resistance exercise program on skeletal muscle strength in children with burn injuries. J Appl Physiol. 2001;91(3):11681175. PubMed ID: 11509512 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Pohl MB, Patel C, Wiley JP, Ferber R. Gait biomechanics and hip muscular strength in patients with patellofemoral osteoarthritis. Gait Posture. 2013;37(3):440444. PubMed ID: 23047017 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A. G*Power 3: a flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. In: Behavior Research Methods. Vol 39. Psychonomic Society Inc; 2007:175191. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Cohen J. A power primer. Psychol Bull. 1992;112(1):155159. PubMed ID: 19565683 doi:

  • 57.

    Portney L, Watkins M. Foundations of Clinical Research: Applications to Practice. 3rd ed. 2009; Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall; 832.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Marques Novo JJ, Souza Lima RDE Jr, Sadao Medeiros Komino C. The Use of the Coefficient of Variation for Comparison of Force-Time Curves from Handgrip Tests. VI International Conference on Computational Bioengineering. 2015;1–7. http://www.ufscar.br. Accessed April 21, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Graf C, Koch B, Kretschmann-Kandel E, et al. Correlation between BMI, leisure habits and motor abilities in childhood (CHILT-Project). Int J Obes. 2004;28(1):2226. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    McMillan AG, Auman NL, Collier DN, Blaise Williams DS. Frontal plane lower extremity biomechanics during walking in boys who are overweight versus healthy weight. Pediatr Phys Ther. 2009;21(2):187193. PubMed ID: 19440128 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Shultz SP, D’Hondt E, Fink PW, Lenoir M, Hills AP. The effects of pediatric obesity on dynamic joint malalignment during gait. Clin Biomech. 2014;29(7):835838. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Cowley JC, McCaw ST, Laurson KR, Torry MR. Children who are overweight display altered vertical jump kinematics and kinetics from children who are not overweight. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2020;32(1):28. PubMed ID: 31476733 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Yaghoubi M, Fink PW, Page WH, Heydari A, Shultz SP. Kinematic comparison of aquatic- and land-based stationary exercises in overweight and normal weight children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2019;31(3):314321. PubMed ID: 30596335 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Teng HL, Powers CM. Hip-extensor strength, trunk posture, and use of the knee-extensor muscles during running. J Athl Train. 2016;51(7):519524. PubMed ID: 27513169 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Suzuki H, Omori G, Uematsu D, Nishino K, Endo N. The influence of hip strength on knee kinematics during a single-legged medial drop landing among competitive collegiate basketball players. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2015;10(5):592601. PubMed ID: 26491609

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Stearns KM, Powers CM. Improvements in hip muscle performance result in increased use of the hip extensors and abductors during a landing task. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(3):602609. PubMed ID: 24464929 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Kollock R, Van Lunen BL, Ringleb SI, Onate JA. Measures of functional performance and their association with hip and thigh strength. J Athl Train. 2015;50(1):1422. PubMed ID: 25347236 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Tsiokanos A, Kellis E, Jamurtas A, Kellis S. The relationship between jumping performance and isokinetic strength of hip and knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2002;10(2):107115. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Brady CJ, Harrison AJ, Flanagan EP, Gregory Haff G, Comyns TM. A comparison of the isometric midthigh pull and isometric squat: Intraday reliability, usefulness, and the magnitude of difference between tests. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2018;13(7):844852. PubMed ID: 29182457 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Muñoz-Bermejo L, Pérez-Gómez J, Manzano F, Collado-Mateo D, Villafaina S, Adsuar JC. Reliability of isokinetic knee strength measurements in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0226274. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Sunnegardh J, Bratteby LE, Nordesjö LO, Nordgren B. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength, anthropometry and physical activity in 8 and 13 year old Swedish children. Europ J Appl Physiol. 1988;58(3):291297.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Newman MA, Tarpenning KM, Marino FE. Relationships between isokinetic knee strength, single-sprint performance, and repeated-sprint ability in football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(4):867. PubMed ID: 15574095 doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 235 235 98
Full Text Views 4 4 1
PDF Downloads 3 3 1