Questionnaires for Outcome Expectancy, Self-Regulation, and Behavioral Expectation for Resistance Training Among Young-Old Adults: Development and Preliminary Validity

in Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
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The purpose of the present research was to develop questionnaires to assess outcome expectancy for resistance training (RT), behavioral expectation in the context of perceived barriers to RT, and self-regulation strategies for RT among young-old adults (50-69 years). Measurement development included (a) item generation through elicitation interviews (N = 14) and open-ended questionnaires (N = 56), (b) expert feedback on a preliminary draft of the questionnaires (N = 4), and (c) a quantitative longitudinal study for item-reduction and psychometric analyses (N = 94). Elicitation procedures, expert feedback, and item reduction yielded four questionnaires with a total of 33 items. Positive outcome expectancy (α = .809), negative outcome expectancy (α = .729), behavioral expectation (α = .925), and self-regulation (α = .761) had—with one exception—moderate bivariate associations with two different indicators of self-reported RT behavior at one-month follow-up (r = .298 to .506). The present research provides preliminary support for newly developed questionnaires to facilitate understanding of the psychosocial determinants of RT among young-old adults.

Williams is with the Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI. Savla, Davy, Marinik, and Winett are with Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA: Savla is with the Department of Human Development and the Center for Gerontology; Davy and Marinik are with the Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise; and Winett is with the Department of Psychology. Kelleher is with the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences at Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC. Address author correspondence to David M. Williams at