Postural Stability During Standing Balance and Sit-to-Stand in Master Athlete Runners Compared With Nonathletic Old and Young Adults

in Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $76.00

1 year subscription

USD  $101.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $144.00

2 year subscription

USD  $189.00

The aim of this study was to compare postural sway during a series of static balancing tasks and during five chair rises between healthy young (mean [SEM], age 26 [1] years), healthy old (age 67 [1] years) and master athlete runners (age 67 [1] years; competing and training for the previous 51 [5] years) using the Microsoft Kinect One. The healthy old had more sway than the healthy young in all balance tasks. The master athletes had similar sway to young athletes during two-leg balancing and one-leg standing with eyes open. When balancing on one leg with eyes closed, both the healthy old and the master athletes had around 17-fold more sway than the young athletes. The healthy old and master athletes also had less anterio-posterior movement during chair rising compared with young athletes. These results suggest that masters runners are not spared from the age-associated decline in postural stability and may benefit from specific balance training.

Leightley and Yap are with School of Computing, Mathematics and Digital Technology, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom. Coulson, Piasecki, Cameron, Barnouin, and McPhee are with Neuromuscular and Skeletal Ageing Research Group, School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom. Tobias is with the Musculoskeletal Research Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom. Leightley is now at Kings Centre for Military Health Research, Kings College, London, United Kingdom.

Address author correspondence to Daniel Leightley at dleightley@ieee.org.
  • Binda, S.M., Culham, E.G., & Brouwer, B. (2003). Balance, muscle strength, and fear of falling in older adults. Experimental Aging Research,29(2), 205–219. PubMed doi:10.1080/03610730303711

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brauer, S.G., Neros, C., & Woollacott, M. (2008). Balance control in the elderly: do masters athletes show more efficient balance responses than healthy older adults? Aging Clinical and Experimental Research,20(5), 406–411. PubMed doi:10.1007/BF03325145

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, M.J., McComas, A.J., & Petito, F. (1973). Physiological changes in ageing muscles. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry,36(2), 174–182. PubMed doi:10.1136/jnnp.36.2.174

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, R.A., Pua, Y.H., Fortin, K., Ritchie, C., Webster, K.E., Denehy, L., & Bryant, A.L. (2012). Validity of the Microsoft Kinect for assessment of postural control. Gait and Posture,36(3), 372–377. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.03.033

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, R.A., Pua, Y.H., Oliveira, C.C., Bower, K.J., Thilarajah, S., McGaw, R. . . . Mentiplay, B.F. (2015). Reliability and concurrent validity of the Microsoft Xbox One Kinect for assessment of standing balance and postural control. Gait and Posture,42(2), 210–213. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.03.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Degens, H., Maden-Wilkinson, T.M., Ireland, A., Korhonen, M.T., Suominen, H., Heinonen . . . Rittweger, J., (2013). Relationship between ventilatory function and age in master athletes and a sedentary reference population. Age,35(3), 1007–1015. PubMed doi:10.1007/s11357-012-9409-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Health, UK. (2011). Start active, stay active: UK physical activity guidelines. Department of Health, UK,http://www.dh.gov.uk/health/category/publications/ (11 July, 2011).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ejupi, A., Brodie, M., Gschwind, Y.J., Lord, S.R., Zagler, W.L., & Delbaere, K. (2015). Kinect-based five-times-sit-to-stand test for clinical and in-home assessment of fall risk in older people. Gerontology,62(1), 118–124. PubMed doi:10.1159/000381804

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feland, J.B., Hager, R., & Merrill, R.M. (2005). Sit to stand transfer: performance in rising power, transfer time and sway by age and sex in senior athletes. British Journal of Sports Medicine,39(11), 39. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsm.2005.018564

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Franchignoni, F., Tesio, L., Martino, M.T., & Ricupero, C. (1998). Reliability of four simple, quantitative tests of balance and mobility in healthy elderly females. Aging (Milano),10(1), 26–31. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galna, B., Barry, G., Jackson, D., Mhiripiri, D., Olivier, P., & Rochester, L. (2014). Accuracy of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for measuring movement in people with Parkinson’s disease. Gait and Posture,39(4), 1062–1068. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.01.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gill, J., Allum, J.H., Carpenter, M.G., Held-Ziolkowska, M., Adkin, A.L., Honegger, F., & Pierchala, K. (2001). Trunk sway measures of postural stability during clinical balance tests: effects of age. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences,56(7), M438–447. PubMed doi:10.1093/gerona/56.7.M438

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glenn, J.M., Gray, M., & Binns, A. (2015).The effects of loaded and unloaded high-velocity resistance training on functional fitness among community-dwelling older adults. Age and Ageing,44(6), 926–931. PubMed doi:10.1093/ageing/afv081

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gonzalez, A., Hayashibe, M., Bonnet, V., & Fraisse, P. (2014). Whole body center of mass estimation with portable sensors: using the statically equivalent serial chain and a Kinect. Sensors (Basel),14(9), 16955–16971. PubMed doi:10.3390/s140916955

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guralnik, J.M., Simonsick, E.M., Ferrucci, L., Glynn, R.J., Berkman, L.F., Blazer, D.G., . . . ,Wallace, R.B. (1994). A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. Journals of Gerontology,49(2), M85–M94. PubMed doi:10.1093/geronj/49.2.M85

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hawkins, S.A., Wiswell, R.A., & Marcell, T.J. (2003). Exercise and the master athlete—a model of successful aging? The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences,58(11), M1009–M1011. PubMed doi:10.1093/gerona/58.11.M1009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jordre, B., Schweinle, W., Oetjen, S., Dybsetter, N., & Braun, M. (2016). Fall history and associated physical performance measures in competitive senior athletes. Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation,32(1), 1–16. doi:10.1097/TGR.0000000000000086

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kinect for Windows Software Development Kit. (2014). Retrieved from http//http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/kinectforwindows

  • Leightley, D., Li, B., McPhee, J.S., Yap, M.H.., & Darby, J. (2014, October). Exemplar-based human action recognition with template matching from a stream of motion capture . In A. Campilho & M.Kamel (Eds.), Image analysis and recognition: 11th international conference, ICIAR 2014, Vilamoura, Portugal, October 22–24, 2014, Proceedings, Part II (pp. 1–20).

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leightley, D., McPhee, J.S., & Yap, M.H. (2016). Automated analysis and quantification of human mobility using a depth sensor. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics. PubMed doi:10.1109/JBHI.2016.2558540

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leightley, D., Yap, M.H., Coulson, J., Barnouin, Y., & McPhee, J.S. (2015, December). Benchmarking human motion analysis using kinect one: An open source dataset. In 2015 Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA) (pp. 1–7), IEEE, Hong Kong.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Li, C., Beaumont, J.L., Rine, R.M., Slotkin, J., & Schubert, M.C. (2014). Normative scores for the NIH toolbox dynamic visual acuity test from 3 to 85 years. Frontiers in Neurology,5, 223. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopez, I., Honrubia, V., & Baloh, R.W. (1997). Aging and the human vestibular nucleus. Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium and Orientation.,7(1), 77–85. PubMed doi:10.1016/S0957-4271(96)00137-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Macrae, P.G., Lacourse, M., & Moldavon, R. (1992). Physical performance measures that predict faller status in community-dwelling older adults. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy,16(3), 123–128. PubMed doi:10.2519/jospt.1992.16.3.123

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McPhee, J.S., French, D.P., Jackson, D., Nazroo, J., Pendleton, N., & Degens, H. (2016). Physical activity in older age: perspectives for healthy ageing and frailty. Biogerontology,17(3), 567–580. PubMed doi:10.1007/s10522-016-9641-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mentiplay, B.F., Perraton, L.G., Bower, K.J., Pua, Y.H., McGaw, R., Heywood, S., & Clark, R.A. (2015). Gait assessment using the Microsoft Xbox One Kinect: concurrent validity and inter-day reliability of spatiotemporal and kinematic variables. Journal of Biomechanics,48(10), 2166–2170. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.05.021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Michaelis, I., Kwiet, A., Gast, U., Boshof, A., Antvorskov, T., Jung, T., . . . ,Felsenberg, D. (2008). Decline of specific peak jumping power with age in master runners. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions,8(1), 64–70. PubMed

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Millet, G.P., Vleck, V.E., & Bentley, D.J. (2009). Physiological differences between cycling and running: lessons from triathletes. Sports Medicine,39(3), 179–206. PubMed doi:10.2165/00007256-200939030-00002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orr, R., de Vos, N.J., Singh, N.A., Ross, D.A., Stavrinos, T.M., & Fiatarone-Singh, M.A. (2006). Power training improves balance in healthy older adults. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences,61(1), 78–85. PubMed doi:10.1093/gerona/61.1.78

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perrin, P.P., Gauchard, G.C., Perrot, C., & Jeandel, C. (1999). Effects of physical and sporting activities on balance control in elderly people. British Journal of Sports Medicine,33(2), 121–126. PubMeddoi:10.1136/bjsm.33.2.121

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piasecki, M., Ireland, A., Stashuk, D., Hamilton-Wright, A., Jones, D.A., & McPhee, J.S. (2016). Age-related neuromuscular changes affecting human vastus lateralis. The Journal of Physiology,594(16), 4525–4536. PubMed doi:10.1113/JP271087

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pollock, R.D., Carter, S., Velloso, C.P., Duggal, N.A., Lord, J.M., Lazarus, N.R., & Harridge, S.D. (2015). An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults. The Journal of Physiology,593(3), 657–680. discussion 680. PubMed doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2014.282863

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rittweger, J., di Prampero, P.E., Maffulli, N., & Narici, M.V. (2009). Sprint and endurance power and ageing: an analysis of master athletic world records. Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society,276(1657), 683–689. PubMed doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1319

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rubenstein, L.Z. (2006). Falls in older people: epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for prevention. Age and Ageing,35 (Suppl 2), ii37–ii41. PubMed

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Runge, M., Rittweger, J., Russo, C.R., Schiessl, H., & Felsenberg, D. (2004). Is muscle power output a key factor in the age-related decline in physical performance? A comparison of muscle cross section, chair-rising test and jumping power. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging,24(6), 335–340. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1475-097X.2004.00567.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sherrington, C., Tiedemann, A., Fairhall, N., Close, J.C., & Lord, S.R. (2011). Exercise to prevent falls in older adults: an updated meta-analysis and best practice recommendations. New South Wales Public Health Bulletin,22(3-4), 78–83. PubMed doi:10.1071/NB10056

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shotton, J., Girshick, R., Fitzgibbon, A., Sharp, T., Cook, M., Finocchio . . . Blake, A., (2013). Efficient human pose estimation from single depth images. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.35(12), 2821–2840. PubMed doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vernadakis, N., Derri, V., Tsitskari, E., & Antoniou, P. (2014). The effect of Xbox Kinect intervention on balance ability for previously injured young competitive male athletes: a preliminary study. Physical Therapy in Sport: Official Journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine,15(3) 148–155. PubMeddoi:10.1016/j.ptsp.2013.08.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wiesmeier, I.K., Dalin, D., & Maurer, C. (2015). Elderly use proprioception rather than visual and vestibular cues for postural motor control. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience,7, 97. PubMed doi:10.3389/fnagi.2015.00097

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 398 398 35
Full Text Views 15 15 5
PDF Downloads 6 6 1