Changes on Walking During Street Crossing Situations and on Dorsiflexion Strength of Older Caribbean Americans After an Exercise Program: A Pilot Study

in Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $76.00

1 year subscription

USD  $101.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $144.00

2 year subscription

USD  $189.00

The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate a 6-month exercise program completed by 10 older Caribbean Americans. Assessments were done at baseline and 3 and 6 months, and included walks on an instrumented mat at preferred speed, and during street crossing simulations with regular (10 s) and reduced time (5 s). There were no significant differences on preferred walking speed over time. Differences between the street crossing conditions were found only at 6 months. Significant changes over time among the assessments were found only during street crossing with reduced time. Street crossing with reduced time was the only walking condition sensitive to capture changes associated with participating in the exercise program. There was a significant increase in dorsiflexion strength overtime. At 6 months it was significantly higher than at baseline and 3 months. The program was feasible, acceptable, and had some positive effects on walking, knee flexion, and dorsiflexion strength.

Vieira and Severi are with the Department of Physical Therapy, Florida International University, Miami, FL. Tappen and Gropper are with Chrystinne E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL. Engstrom is with Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL. De Oliveira and da Silva are with the Department of Physical Therapy, Florida International University, Miami, FL; and the Department of Physical Therapy, North Parana University, Londrina, Brazil. Barbosa is with the Department of Physical Therapy, Florida International University, Miami, FL; and the Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Brazil.

Address author correspondence to Edgar R. Vieira at evieira@fiu.edu.
  • Administration for Community Living. (2014). Projected future growth of the older population. Retrieved from http://www.aoa.gov/Aging_Statistics/future_growth/future_growth.aspx

    • Export Citation
  • Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2014). Disparities in healthcare quality among racial and ethnic minority groups: Selected findings from the 2010 national healthcare quality and disparities reports. Retrieved from http://archive.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr10/minority.html

    • Export Citation
  • Astephen, J.L., Deluzio, K.J., Caldwell, G.E., & Dunbar, M.J. (2008). Biomechanical changes at the hip, knee, and ankle joints during gait are associated with knee osteoarthritis severity. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 26(3), 332–341. PubMed doi:10.1002/jor.20496

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benavent-Caballer, V., Rosado-Calatayud, P., Segura-Ortí, E., Amer-Cuenca, J., & Lisón, J. (2016). The effectiveness of a video-supported group-based Otago exercise programme on physical performance in community-dwelling older adults: a preliminary study. Physiotherapy, 102(3), 280–286. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.physio.2015.08

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bilney, B., Morris, M., & Webster, K. (2003). Concurrent related validity of the GAITRite® walkway system for quantification of the spatial and temporal parameters of gait. Gait and Posture, 17(1), 68–74. PubMed doi:10.1016/S0966-6362(02)00053-X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, A.J., Robertson, M.C., Gardner, M.M., Norton, R.N., Tilyard, M.W., & Buchner, D.M. (1997). Randomised controlled trial of a general practice programme of home based exercise to prevent falls in elderly women. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Ed.), 315(7115), 1065–1069. doi:10.1136/bmj.315.7115.1065

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Costs of falls among older adults. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Falls/fallcost.html

    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. (Rev. ed.) New York, NY: Academic Press.

  • Creaby, M.W., Hunt, M.A., Hinman, R.S., & Bennell, K.L. (2013). Sagittal plane joint loading is related to knee flexion in osteoarthritic gait. Clinical Biomechanics, 28(8), 916–920. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2013.07.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Góes, S.M., Leite, N., Stefanello, J.M.F., Homann, D., Lynn, S.K., & Rodacki, A.L.F. (2015). Ankle dorsiflexion may play an important role in falls in women with fibromyalgia. Clinical Biomechanics, 30(6), 593–598. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2015.03.026

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grabiner, P.C., Biswas, S.T., & Grabiner, M.D. (2001). Age-related changes in spatial and temporal gait variables. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(1), 31–35. PubMed doi:10.1053/apmr.2001.18219

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guccione, A.A., Avers, D., & Wong, R. (2011). Geriatric physical therapy. Elsevier Health Sciences.

  • Hau, C., Reid, K.F., Wong, K.F., Chin, R.J., Botto, T.J., Eliasziw, M., . . . Fielding, R.A. (2016). Collaborative evaluation of the healthy habits program: an effective community intervention to improve mobility and cognition of Chinese older adults living in the U.S. The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, 20(4), 391–397. PubMed doi:10.1007/s12603-015-0623-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hortobagyi, T., Lesinski, M., Gäbler, M., VanSwearingen, J.M., Malatesta, D., & Granacher, U. (2015). Effects of three types of exercise interventions on healthy old adults gait speed: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 45(12), 1627–1643. PubMed doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0371-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Isacson, J., Gransberg, L., & Knutsson, E. (1986). Three-dimensional electrogoniometric gait recording. Journal of Biomechanics, 19(8), 627–635. PubMed doi:10.1016/0021-9290(86)90168-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, H., Yoshida, H., & Suzuki, T. (2014). Falls and fractures in participants and excluded non-participants of a fall prevention exercise program for elderly women with a history of falls: 1-year follow-up study. Geriatrics and Gerontology International, 14(2), 285–292. PubMed doi:10.1111/ggi.12095

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, I., Carrasco, C., Muntaner, C., McKenzie, K., & Noh, S. (2013). Ethnicity and postmigration health trajectory in new immigrants to Canada. American Journal of Public Health, 103(4), 96–104. PubMed doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.301185

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loh, V.H.Y., Rachele, J.N., Brown, W.J., Washington, S., & Turrell, G. (2016). Neighborhood disadvantage, individual-level socioeconomic position and physical function: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis. Preventive Medicine, 89, 112–120. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.05.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lord, S.R., Clark, R.D., & Webster, I.W. (1991a). Postural stability and associated physiological factors in a population of aged persons. Journal of Gerontology, 46(3), M69–M76. PubMed doi:10.1093/geronj

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lord, S.R., Clark, R.D., & Webster, I.W. (1991b). Physiological factors associated with falls in an elderly population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 39(12), 1194–1200. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1991.tb03574.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lord, S.R., Murray, S.M., Chapman, K., Munro, B., & Tiedemann, A. (2002). Sit-to-stand performance depends on sensation, speed, balance, and psychological status in addition to strength in older people. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 57(8), M539–M543. PubMed doi:10.1093/gerona/57.8.M539

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCaffrey, R. (2008). The lived experience of Haitian older adults’ integration into a senior center in southeast Florida. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(1), 19, 33–39. doi:10.1177/1043659607309139

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Menz, H.B., Latt, M.D., Tiedemann, A., Mun San Kwan, M., & Lord, S.R. (2004). Reliability of the GAITRite® walkway system for the quantification of temporo-spatial parameters of gait in young and older people. Gait and Posture, 20(1), 20–25. PubMed doi:10.1016/S0966-6362(03)00068-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Michael, Y.L., & Yen, I.H. (2014). Aging and place—Neighborhoods and health in a world growing older. Journal of Aging and Health, 26(8), 1251–1260. doi:10.1177/0898264314562148

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Montero-Odasso, M., Schapira, M., Soriano, E.R., Varela, M., Kaplan, R., Camera, L.A., & Mayorga, L.M. (2005). Gait velocity as a single predictor of adverse events in healthy seniors aged 75 years and older. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 60(10), 1304–1309. PubMed doi:10.1093/gerona/60.10.1304

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ng, T.K., Lo, S., & Cheing, G.L. (2014). The association between physical characteristics of the ankle joint and the mobility performance in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 59(2), 346–352. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.archger.2014.07.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osman, A., & Walsemann, K.M. (2016). Ethnic disparities in the onset and progression of functional limitations among Israeli middle-aged and older adults: socioeconomic and health-related pathways. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 17, 140–150. PubMed doi:10.1093/geronb/gbw007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robertson, M.C., Campbell, A.J., Gardner, M.M., & Devlin, N. (2002). Preventing injuries in older people by preventing falls: a meta-analysis of individual-level data. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(5), 905–911. PubMed doi:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50218.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rote, S., & Markides, K. (2014). Aging, social relationships, and health among older immigrants. Generations, 38(1), 51–57.

  • Sato, K. (2015). Factors affecting minimum foot clearance in the elderly walking: a multiple regression analysis. Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 3(4), 109–115. doi:10.4236/ojtr.2015.34015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saunders, J.B., Inman, V.T., & Eberhart, H.D. (1953). The major determinants in normal and pathological gait. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 35-A(3), 543–558. PubMed doi:10.1007/978-1-4471-5451-8_102

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schenkman, M., Hughes, M.A., Samsa, G., & Studenski, S. (1996). The relative importance of strength and balance in chair rise by functionally impaired older individuals. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 44(12), 1441–1446. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1996.tb04068.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shamay, S., & Hui-Chan, C.W. (2013). Ankle dorsiflexion, not plantarflexion strength, predicts the functional mobility of people with spastic hemiplegia. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 45(6), 541–545. doi:10.2340/16501977-1154

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Son, N.K., Ryu, Y.U., Jeong, H.W., Jang, Y.H., & Kim, H.D. (2016). Comparison of 2 different exercise approaches: Tai chi versus Otago, in community-dwelling older women. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy (2001), 39(2), 51–57. PubMed doi:10.1519/JPT.0000000000000042

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spink, M.J., Fotoohabadi, M.R., & Menz, H.B. (2010). Foot and ankle strength assessment using hand-held dynamometry: reliability and age-related differences. Gerontology, 56(6), 525–532. PubMed doi:10.1159/000264655

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stevens, J.A., Mack, K.A., Paulozzi, L.J., & Ballesteros, M.F. (2008). Self-reported falls and fall-related injuries among persons aged ≥65 years–United States, 2006. Journal of Safety Research, 39(3), 345–349. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2008.05.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas-Hope, E. (2016). Current trends and issues in Caribbean migration. Advocatus, 19, 251–270.

  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2015). A profile of older Americans: 2011. Retrieved from http://www.aoa.acl.gov/Aging_Statistics/Profile/2014/docs/2014-Profile.pdf

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • van Dieën, J.H., Pijnappels, M., & Bobbert, M.F. (2005). Age-related intrinsic limitations in preventing a trip and regaining balance after a trip. Safety Science, 43(7), 437–453. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2005.08.008

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vieira, E.R., Lim, H., Brunt, D., Hallal, C.Z., Kinsey, L., Errington, L., & Gonçalves, M. (2015). Temporo-spatial gait parameters during street crossing conditions: a comparison between younger and older adults. Gait and Posture, 41(2), 510–515. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.12.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vieira, E.R., Palmer, R.C., & Chaves, P.H.M. (2016). Prevention of falls in older people living in the community. British Medical Journal, 353, i1419. PubMed doi:10.1136/bmj.i1419

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webber, S.C., & Porter, M.M. (2010). Effects of ankle power training on movement time in mobility-impaired older women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 42(7), 1233–1240. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cdd4e9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, K.E., Wittwer, J.E., & Feller, J.A. (2005). Validity of the GAITRite® walkway system for the measurement of averaged and individual step parameters of gait. Gait and Posture, 22(4), 317–321. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.10.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whipple, R., Wolfson, L., & Amerman, P. (1987). The relationship of knee and ankle weakness to falls in nursing home residents: an isokinetic study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 35(1), 13–20. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1987.tb01313.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoo, H., Chung, E., & Lee, B. (2013). The effects of augmented reality-based Otago exercise on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of elderly women. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 25(7), 797–801. PubMed doi:10.1589/jpts.25.797

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zijlstra, A., Ufkes, T., Skelton, D.A., Lundin-Olsson, L., & Zijlstra, W. (2008). Do dual tasks have an added value over single tasks for balance assessment in fall prevention programs? A mini-review. Gerontology, 54(1), 40–49. PubMed doi:10.1159/000117808

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zunzunegui, A. (2003). The immigration of older adults to America. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30(4), 659–679.

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 63 63 6
Full Text Views 0 0 0
PDF Downloads 0 0 0