Impact of Walking Cadence Prescription to Reach the Global Physical Activity Recommendations in Older Adults

in Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $76.00

1 year subscription

USD  $101.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $144.00

2 year subscription

USD  $189.00

Walking cadence is a new monitoring strategy used to increase bouts of time at moderate intensity. Inactive older adults were instructed to walk 150 min per week at no specified intensity during phase one. In phase two, the intervention group (N = 23) received instructions on how to reach moderate intensity, using a pedometer and an individualized walking cadence, while the control group (N = 22) did not. The main outcomes were time at moderate intensity and moderate intensity in 10-min bouts. During phase two only the intervention group increased time at moderate intensity and moderate intensity in 10-min bouts compared with phase one and compared with the control group (p ≤ .01). Older adults can increase time walked at moderate intensity in 10-min bouts weekly by using individually prescribed walking cadence, a pedometer to track intensity, and practicing walking at this cadence.

Slaght is with the Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Sénéchal and Bouchard are with the Faculty of Kinesiology, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.

Address author correspondence to Danielle R. Bouchard at danielle.bouchard@unb.ca.
  • Abel, M., Hannon, J., Mullineaux, D., & Beighle, A. (2011). Determination of step rate thresholds corresponding to physical activity intensity classifications in adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8(1), 45–51. PubMed doi:10.1123/jpah.8.1.45

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). (2013). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (9th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ayabe, M., Aoki, J., Kumahara, H., Yoshimura, E., Matono, S., Tobina, T., … Tanaka, H. (2011). Minute-by-minute stepping rate of daily physical activity in normal and overweight/obese adults. Obesity Research and Clinical Practice, 5(2), 151–156. doi:10.1016/j.orcp.2010.12.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borg, G.A. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14(5), 377–381. PubMed doi:10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bouchard, D.R. (2016). Identification and prediction of the walking cadence required to reach moderate intensity using individually determined relative moderate intensity in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 25(2), 1–25. doi:10.1123/japa.2015-0262

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bouchard, D.R., Langlois, M.F., Boisvert-Vigneault, K., Farand, P., Paulin, M., & Baillargeon, J.P. (2013). Pilot study: can older inactive adults learn how to reach the required intensity of physical activity guideline? Clinical Interventions in Aging, 8, 501–508. PubMed doi:10.2147/CIA.S42224

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bravata, D.M, Smith-Spangler, C., Sundaram, V., Gienger, A.L., Lin, N., Lewis, R., … Sirard, J.R. (2007). Using pedometers to increase physical activity and improve health: a systematic review. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(19), 2296–2304. PubMed doi:10.1001/jama.298.19.2296

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP). (2011). PAR-Q+. Retrieved from http://www.csep.ca/CMFiles/publications/parq/PARQplusSept2011version_ALL.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP). (2013). Canadian society for exercise physiology – physical activity training for health – resource manual. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP). (2014). Canadian physical activity guidelines and Canadian sedentary behaviour guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.csep.ca/english/view.asp?x=804

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cerin, E., Conway, T.L., Saelens, B.E., Frank, L.D., & Sallis, J.F. (2009). Cross-validation of the factorial structure of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) and its abbreviated form (NEWS-A). International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6(1), 32. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-32

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colley, R.C., Garriguet, D., Janssen, I., Craig, C.L., Clarke, J., & Tremblay, M.S. (2011). Physical activity of Canadian adults: accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Health Reports, 22(1), 7–14. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donnelly, J.E., Jacobsen, D.J., Heelan, K.S., Seip, R., & Smith, S. (2000). The effects of 18 months of intermittent vs. continuous exercise on aerobic capacity, body weight and composition, and metabolic fitness in previously sedentary, moderately obese females. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 24(5), 566–572. PubMed doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801198

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elliott, A.C., & Woodward, W.A. (2007). Statistical analysis quick reference guidebook: with SPSS examples. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

  • Foster, C., Hillsdon, M., Thorogood, M., Kaur, A., & Wedatilake, T. (2005). Interventions for promoting physical activity. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (1), CD003180. PubMed doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003180.pub2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Friedman, S.M., Munoz, B., West, S.K., Rubin, G.S., & Fried, L.P. (2002). Falls and fear of falling: which comes first? A longitudinal prediction model suggests strategies for primary and secondary prevention. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50(8), 1329–35. PubMed doi:10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50352.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herman, T., Giladi, N., Gurevich, T., & Hausdorff, J.M. (2005). Gait instability and fractal dynamics of older adults with a “cautious” gait: why do certain older adults walk fearfully? Gait and Posture, 21(2), 178–185. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2004.01.014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heyward, V.H. (2010). Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription (6th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Hoyle, D.A., Latour, M., & Bohannon, R.W. (1991). Intraexaminer, interexaminer, and interdevice comparability of leg length measurements obtained with measuring tape and metrecom. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 14(6), 263–268. doi:10.2519/jospt.1991.14.6.263

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jette, M., Sidney, K., & Blümchen, G. (1990). Metabolic equivalents (METS) in exercise testing, exercise prescription, and evaluation of functional capacity. Clinical Cardiology, 13(8), 555–565. PubMed doi:10.1002/clc.4960130809

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • King, A.C., Haskell, W.L., Taylor, C.B., Kraemer, H.C., & DeBusk, R.F. (1991). Group- vs home-based exercise training in healthy older men and women: a community-based clinical trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 266(11), 1535–1542. PubMed doi:10.1001/jama.1991.03470110081037

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, P.H. (2013). Data imputation for accelerometer-measured physical activity: the combined approach. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(5), 965–971. PubMed doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.052738

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lombard, D.N., Lombard, T.N., & Winett, R.A. (1995). Walking to meet health guidelines: the effect of prompting frequency and prompt structure. Health Psychology, 14(2), 164–170. PubMed doi:10.1037/0278-6133.14.2.164

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manini, T.M., Everhart, J.E., Patel, K.V., Schoeller, D.A., Colbert, L.H., Visser, M., … Harris, T.B. (2006). Daily activity energy expenditure and mortality among older adults. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(2), 171–179. PubMed doi:10.1001/jama.296.2.171

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, S.J., Levy, S.S., Tudor-Locke, C.E., Kolkhorst, F.W., Wooten, K.M., Ji, M., … Ainsworth, B.E. (2009). Translating physical activity recommendations into a pedometer-based step goal: 3000 steps in 30 minutes. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 36(5), 410–415. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.01.021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marshall, S.J., Nicaise, V., Ji, M., Huerta, C., Haubenstricker, J., Levy, S.S., … Elder, J.E. (2013). Using step cadence goals to increase moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45(3), 592–602. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318277a586

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McLaughlin, J., King, G., Howley, E., Bassett, D., Jr., & Ainsworth, B. (2001). Validation of the COSMED K4 b2 portable metabolic system. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22(4), 280–284. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-2001-13816

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moreau, K.L., Degarmo, R., Langley, J., McMahon, C., Howley, E.T., Bassett, D.R., & Thompson, D.L. (2001). Increasing daily walking lowers blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(11), 1825–1831. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005768-200111000-00005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murphy, M.H., Nevill, A.M., Neville, C., Biddle, S., & Hardman, A.E. (2002). Accumulating brisk walking for fitness, cardiovascular risk, and psychological health. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(9), 1468–1474. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005768-200209000-00011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nagasaki, H., Itoh, H., Hashizume, K., Taketo, F., Maruyama, H., & Kinugasa, T. (1996). Walking patterns and finger rhythm of older adults. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82(2), 435–447. PubMed doi:10.2466/pms.1996.82.2.435

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peacock, L., Hewitt, A., Rowe, D.A., & Sutherland, R. (2014). Stride rate and walking intensity in healthy older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 22(2), 276–283. PubMed doi:10.1123/japa.2012-0333

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ready, A.E., Butcher, J.E., Dear, J.B., Fieldhouse, P., Harlos, S., Katz, A., … Gardiner, P.F. (2009). Canada’s physical activity guide recommendations are a low benchmark for Manitoba adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 34(2), 172–181. PubMed doi:10.1139/H08-143

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rice, K.R., Heesch, K.C., Dinger, M.K., & Fields, D.A. (2008). Effects of 2 brief interventions on women’s understanding of moderate-intensity physical activity. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 5(1), 58–73. PubMed doi:10.1123/jpah.5.1.58

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rikli, R.E., & Jones, C.J. (1999). Development and validation of a functional fitness test for community-residing older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 7, 129–161. doi:10.1123/japa.7.2.129

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rikli, R.E., & Jones, C.J. (2013). Senior fitness test manual (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Rowe, D.A., Welk, G.J., Heil, D.P., Mahar, M.T., Kemble, C.D., Calabro, M.A., & Camenisch, K. (2011). Stride rate recommendations for moderate-intensity walking. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(2), 312–318. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e9d99a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Statistics Canada. (2012). Physical activity during leisure time, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-625-x/2013001/article/11843-eng.htm (December 1, 2014).

    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, K.L., Fitzsimons, C., & Mutrie, N. (2010). Objective and subjective assessments of normal walking pace, in comparison with that recommended for moderate intensity physical activity. International Journal of Exercise Science, 3(3), 87–96. PubMed.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tremblay, M.S., Kho, M.E., Tricco, A.C., & Duggan, M. (2010). Process description and evaluation of Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines development. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(1), 42. PubMed doi:10.1186/1479-5868-7-42

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tudor-Locke, C. (2002). Taking steps toward increased physical activity: using pedometers to measure and motivate. President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Research Digest, 3(17), 3–10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tudor-Locke, C., Barreira, T.V., Brouillette, R.M., Foil, H.C., & Keller, J.N. (2013). Preliminary comparison of clinical and free-living measures of stepping cadence in older adults. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 10(8), 1175–1180. PubMed doi:10.1123/jpah.10.8.1175

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tudor-Locke, C., Leonardi, C., Johnson, W.D., Katzmarzyk, P.T., & Church, T.S. (2011). Accelerometer steps/day translation of moderate-to-vigorous activity. Preventive Medicine, 53(1–2), 31–33. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.01.014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tudor-Locke, C., Sisson, S.B., Collova, T., Lee, S.M., & Swan, P.D. (2005). Pedometer-determined step count guidelines for classifying walking intensity in a young ostensibly healthy population. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 30(6), 666–676. PubMed doi:10.1139/h05-147

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization (WHO). (2012). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 64 64 11
Full Text Views 13 13 0
PDF Downloads 6 6 0