Fall prevention exercise programs have been reported to be effective in minimizing falls in older adults. However, adherence and attrition in exercise programs remain a challenge. This study reviewed the evidence on how levels of adherence and attrition in fall prevention exercise programs may affect magnitude of effect of fall risk reduction in community-dwelling older adults. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on fall prevention exercise programs for community-dwelling older adults aged 65+ years published between 2005 and 2016 from six databases were undertaken. Twenty articles met inclusion criteria. Results showed that program adherence >80% may result in greater fall risk reduction compared to lower levels of adherence. A possible inverse relationship exists between attrition levels and effect sizes of fall prevention exercise programs. Future studies should properly report falls/fallers and a consensus on a standardized measure for reporting adherence to fall prevention exercise programs is recommended.
Osho is with the Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Owoeye is with the Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Armijo-Olivo is with the Institute of Health Economics, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.