The Mediating Effects of Resilience, Morale, and Sense of Coherence Between Physical Activity and Perceived Physical/Mental Health Among Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

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The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effects of resilience, morale, and sense of coherence on the relationship between physical activity and respondents’ perceived physical/mental health and depression among community-dwelling older adults in Japan. The study included 369 participants with an average age of 74 years from Kasuishimohara District in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. They completed a survey that included the Resilience Scale, the Sense of Coherence Scale, the Medical Outcomes Short Form 8, the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale, the Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form), and a demographic questionnaire. The results of the path mediation analyses revealed that resilience and morale fully mediated the relationship between physical activity and perceived physical/mental health and depression. However, sense of coherence was not a significant mediator. Some intervention programs are suggested to maximize the effects of physical activity on one’s well-being. At-risk populations who need such programs are also discussed.

Kukihara, Arita, and Nakashima are with the School of Nursing, Fukuoka University Faculty of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan. Yamawaki is with the Dept. of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT. Ando is with the School of Nursing, St. Mary’s College, Fukuoka, Japan. Tamura is with the Dept. of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Yasuda Women’s University, Hiroshima, Japan.

Address author correspondence to Niwako Yamawaki at niwako_yamawaki@byu.edu.
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