Impact of Social Isolation on Physical Activity and Factors Associated With Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic

in Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Restricted access

The objective was to analyze the impact of social isolation on moderate physical activity and factors associated with sedentary behavior of older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a cross-sectional study involving 111 older adults (aged 71.0 ± 6.87 years). The data were collected at two time points: in November 2019 and in June 2020. There was a decline in moderate physical activity when the minutes/week were compared before and during social isolation (p < .001). Sedentary behavior was associated with the condition of living alone. Older adults who lived alone were 3.29 times more likely to spend 4 hr or more in sedentary behavior than those who lived with a partner (95% confidence interval [1.01, 10.74]). Government agencies must establish PA-related health promotion strategies, especially in developing and low-income countries. Therefore, home exercises need to be encouraged to prevent the consequences of this pandemic period.

The authors are with the Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências do Movimento Humano, 179—Centro de Ciências da Saúde e do Esporte—CEFID, Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Rua Pascoal Simone, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.

Franco (pedsilfra@hotmail.com) is corresponding author.
  • Ammar, A., Brach, M., Trabelsi, K., Chtourou, H., Boukhris, O., Masmoudi, L., . . . Hoekelmann, A. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 home confinement on physical activity and eating behavior: Preliminary results of the ECLB-COVID19 international online-survey. Nutrients, 12(6), 1583. doi:10.1101/2020.05.04.20072447

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ammar, A., Chtourou, H., Boukhris, O., Trabelsi, K., Masmoudi, L., Brach, M., . . . Hoekelmann, A. (2020). Social participation and life satisfaction of peoples during the COVID-19 home confinement: The ECLB-COVID19 multicenter study. MedRxiv, 23. doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20091066

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ammar, A., Mueller, P., Trabelsi, K., Chtourou, H., Boukhris, O., Masmoudi, L., . . . Hoekelmann, A. (2020). Emotional consequences of COVID-19 home confinement: The ECLB-COVID19 multicenter study. MedRxiv, 20. doi:10.1101/2020.05.05.20091058

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cadore, E.L., Sáez de Asteasu, M.L., & Izquierdo, M. (2019). Multicomponent exercise and the hallmarks of frailty: Considerations on cognitive impairment and acute hospitalization. Experimental Gerontology, 122, 1014. PubMed ID: 30995516 doi:10.1016/j.exger.2019.04.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chau, J.Y., Grunseit, A.C., Chey, T., Stamatakis, E., Brown, W.J., Matthews, C.E., . . . van der Ploeg, H.P. (2013). Daily sitting time and all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis. PLoS One, 8(11), e80000. PubMed ID: 24236168 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080000

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chen, P., Mao, L., Nassis, G.P., Harmer, P., Ainsworth, B.E., & Li, F. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 9(2), 103104. PubMed ID: 32099716 doi:10.1016/j.jshs.2020.02.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cleland, C., Ferguson, S., Ellis, G., & Hunter, R.F. (2018). Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour of older adults in the United Kingdom. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 18(1), 176. PubMed ID: 30577770 doi:10.1186/s12874-018-0642-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Courtin, E., & Knapp, M. (2017). Social isolation, loneliness and health in old age: A scoping review. Health & Social Care in the Community, 25(3), 799812. PubMed ID: 26712585 doi:10.1111/hsc.12311

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craig, C.L., Marshall, A.L., Sjöström, M., Bauman, A.E., Booth, M.L., Ainsworth, B.E., . . . Oja, P. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(8), 13811395. PubMed ID: 12900694 doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cunningham, C., O’ Sullivan, R., Caserotti, P., & Tully, M.A. (2020). Consequences of physical inactivity in older adults: A systematic review of reviews and meta-analyses. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 30(5), 816827. PubMed ID: 32020713 doi:10.1111/sms.13616

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Oliveira Neto, L., Elsangedy, H., Tavares, O., Teixeira, C., Behm, D., & Da Silva-Grigoletto, M. (2020). #Traininginhome—Home-based training during COVID-19 (SARS-COV2) pandemic: Physical exercise and behavior-based approach. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Do Exercício, 19(2), 919. doi:10.33233/rbfe.v19i2.4006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dempsey, P.C., Sacre, J.W., Larsen, R.N., Straznicky, N.E., Sethi, P., Cohen, N.D., . . . Dunstan, D.W. (2016). Interrupting prolonged sitting with brief bouts of light walking or simple resistance activities reduces resting blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline in type 2 diabetes. Journal of Hypertension, 34(12), 23762382. PubMed ID: 27512975 doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000001101

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dwyer, M.J., Pasini, M., De Dominicis, S., & Righi, E. (2020). Physical activity: Benefits and challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 30(7), 12911294. PubMed ID: 32542719 doi:10.1111/sms.13710

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekelund, U., Steene-Johannessen, J., Brown, W.J., Fagerland, M.W., Owen, N., Powell, K.E., . . . Lee, I.-M. (2016). Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. The Lancet, 388(10051), 13021310. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30370-1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fletcher, G.F., Landolfo, C., Niebauer, J., Ozemek, C., Arena, R., & Lavie, C.J. (2018). Promoting physical activity and exercise: JACC health promotion series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 72(14), 16221639. PubMed ID: 30261965 doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.2141

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaskin, C.J., & Orellana, L. (2018). Factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults from six low- and middle-income countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(5), 908. doi:10.3390/ijerph15050908

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, G., Laddu, D.R., Phillips, S.A., Lavie, C.J., & Arena, R. (2020). A tale of two pandemics: How will COVID-19 and global trends in physical inactivity and sedentary behavior affect one another? Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 64, 108110. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2020.04.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jiménez-Pavón, D., Carbonell-Baeza, A., & Lavie, C.J. (2020). Physical exercise as therapy to fight against the mental and physical consequences of COVID-19 quarantine: Special focus in older people. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 63(3), 386388. PubMed ID: 32220590 doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2020.03.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, Y., & Lee, E. (2019). The association between elderly people’s sedentary behaviors and their health-related quality of life: Focusing on comparing the young-old and the old-old. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 17(1), 131. PubMed ID: 31349858 doi:10.1186/s12955-019-1191-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Klinenberg, E. (2016). Social isolation, loneliness, and living alone: Identifying the risks for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 106(5), 786787. PubMed ID: 27049414 doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303166

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Macek, P., Terek-Derszniak, M., Zak, M., Biskup, M., Ciepiela, P., Krol, H., Smok-Kalwat, J., & Gozdz, S. (2019). WHO recommendations on physical activity versus compliance rate within a specific urban population as assessed through IPAQ survey: A cross-sectional cohort study. BMJ Open, 9(6), e028334. PubMed ID: 31189681 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028334

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martínez-Velilla, N., Casas-Herrero, A., Zambom-Ferraresi, F., Sáez de Asteasu, M.L., Lucia, A., Galbete, A., . . . Izquierdo, M. (2019). Effect of exercise intervention on functional decline in very elderly patients during acute hospitalization: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 179(1), 2836. PubMed ID: 30419096 doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.4869

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mazo, G.Z., & Benedetti, T.R.B. (2010). Adaptação do questionário internacional de atividade física para idosos. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano, 12(6), 480484. doi:10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n6p480

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mazo, G.Z., Pereira, S., Fank, F., Silva, B., Capanema, V., Gil, P.R., . . . Franco, P.S. (2020). 30 anos GETI: Programa de extensão voltando à pessoa idosa. Revista Biomotriz, 14(3), 137143. doi:10.33053/biomotriz.v14i3.95

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Negrini, E.L.D., Nascimento, C.F., Silva, A., & Antunes, J.L.F. (2018). Elderly persons who live alone in Brazil and their lifestyle. Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 21(5), 523531. Retrieved from http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1809-98232018000500523&nrm=iso

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Peçanha, T., Goessler, K.F., Roschel, H., & Gualano, B. (2020). Social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic can increase physical inactivity and the global burden of cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 318(6), 14411446. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00268.2020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pimouguet, C., Rizzuto, D., Schön, P., Shakersain, B., Angleman, S., Lagergren, M., . . . Xu, W. (2016). Impact of living alone on institutionalization and mortality: A population-based longitudinal study. European Journal of Public Health, 26(1), 182187. PubMed ID: 25817209 doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckv052

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reid Chassiakos, Y., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M.A., & Cross, C. (2016). Children and adolescents and digital media. Pediatrics, 138(5), e20162593. PubMed ID: 27940795 doi:10.1542/peds.2016-2593

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schrempft, S., Jackowska, M., Hamer, M., & Steptoe, A. (2019). Associations between social isolation, loneliness, and objective physical activity in older men and women. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 74. PubMed ID: 30651092 doi:10.1186/s12889-019-6424-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shahid, Z., Kalayanamitra, R., McClafferty, B., Kepko, D., Ramgobin, D., Patel, R., . . . Jain, R. (2020). COVID-19 and older adults: What we know. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 68(5), 926929. PubMed ID: 32255507 doi:10.1111/jgs.16472

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steptoe, A., Shankar, A., Demakakos, P., & Wardle, J. (2013). Social isolation, loneliness, and all-cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(15), 57975801. doi:10.1073/pnas.1219686110

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tremblay, M.S., Aubert, S., Barnes, J.D., Saunders, T.J., Carson, V., Latimer-Cheung, A.E., . . . on behalf of SBRN Terminology Consensus Project Participants. (2017). Sedentary behavior research network (SBRN)—Terminology consensus project process and outcome. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 75. doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0525-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Der Ploeg, H.P., Chey, T., Korda, R.J., Banks, E., & Bauman, A. (2012). Sitting time and all-cause mortality risk in 222 497 Australian adults. Archives of Internal Medicine, 172(6), 494500. PubMed ID: 22450936 doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.2174

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

  • World Health Organization. (2018). Physical activity. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/physical-activity

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Health Organization. (2020). Stay physically active during self-quarantine. Geneva, Switzerland: Author. Retrieved from https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid-19/publications-and-technical-guidance/noncommunicable-diseases/stay-physically-active-during-self-quarantine

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1673 1673 267
Full Text Views 81 81 4
PDF Downloads 114 114 8