The Use of Home-Based Nonimmersive Virtual Reality to Encourage Physical and Cognitive Exercise in People With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Feasibility Study

Click name to view affiliation

Lisa Sheehy
Search for other papers by Lisa Sheehy in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Heidi Sveistrup
Search for other papers by Heidi Sveistrup in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Frank Knoefel
Search for other papers by Frank Knoefel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Anne Taillon-Hobson
Search for other papers by Anne Taillon-Hobson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Tara Martin
Search for other papers by Tara Martin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Mary Egan
Search for other papers by Mary Egan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Martin Bilodeau
Search for other papers by Martin Bilodeau in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Vivian Welch
Search for other papers by Vivian Welch in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Christine Yang
Search for other papers by Christine Yang in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Hillel Finestone
Search for other papers by Hillel Finestone in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Individuals with mild cognitive impairment are at risk of cognitive and physical decline. Virtual reality (VR) exercise may provide beneficial physical and cognitive exercise. The objectives of this study were to assess the feasibility and safety of home-based VR exercise and to provide pilot data for physical and cognitive efficacy. Eleven individuals with mild cognitive impairment (seven males/four females, average 78 years old, and average 3 years since diagnosis) performed a 30-min home-based VR exercise program 5 days a week for 6 weeks. The VR platform was successfully installed in participants’ homes, and all participants were able to learn the VR program and progress. Participants completed 99% of the prescribed exercise. There were no major adverse events. Most participants enjoyed the VR program and reported physical benefits; fewer reported cognitive benefits. No physical or cognitive outcome measures showed change after 6 weeks. Home-based VR exercise is safe and feasible in individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

Sheehy, Sveistrup, Knoefel, Taillon-Hobson, Martin, Egan, Bilodeau, Welch, and Finestone are with the Bruyère Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Sveistrup, Knoefel, Yang, and Finestone are with Bruyère Continuing Care, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Sveistrup, Egan, and Bilodeau are with the Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Sveistrup and Bilodeau are with the Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Knoefel is also with the Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; and the Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Welch is with the Faculty of Medicine, School of Epidemiology, Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Yang and Finestone are with the Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Sheehy (lsheehy@bruyere.org) is corresponding author.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Table 1 (PDF 196 KB)
  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • AGE-WELL NCE Inc. (2019, July 11–30). 7 in 10 Canadians over the age of 65 feel confident about technology use and 86% are online daily. Environics Research survey. Retrieved from +https://agewell-nce.ca/archives/8713?utm_source=AGE-WELL+Newsletter&utm_campaign=a4c31b229f-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2019_09_30_07_42&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_476e6b687a-a4c31b229f-141580913

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson-Hanley, C., Barcelos, N.M., Zimmerman, E.A., Gillen, R.W., Dunnam, M., Cohen, B.D., … Kramer, A.F. (2018). The Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise Study (ACES) for community-dwelling older adults with or at-risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI): Neuropsychological, neurobiological and neuroimaging outcomes of a randomized clinical trial. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 10, 76. PubMed ID: 29780318 doi:10.3389/fnagi.2018.00076

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berg, K., Wood-Dauphinee, S., & Williams, J.I. (1995). The Balance Scale: Reliability assessment with elderly residents and patients with an acute stroke. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 27(1), 2736. PubMed ID: 7792547

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berg, K.O., Maki, B.E., Williams, J.I., Holliday, P.J., & Wood-Dauphinee, S.L. (1992). Clinical and laboratory measures of postural balance in an elderly population. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 73(11), 10731080.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Berg, K.O., Wood-Dauphinee, S.L., Williams, J.I., & Maki, B. (1992). Measuring balance in the elderly: Validation of an instrument. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 83(Suppl. 2), S7S11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boa Sorte Silva, N.C., Nagamatsu, L.S., Gill, D.P., Owen, A.M., & Petrella, R.J. (2020). Memory function and brain functional connectivity adaptations following multiple-modality exercise and mind-motor training in older adults at risk of dementia: An exploratory sub-study. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 12, 22. PubMed ID: 32158386 doi:10.3389/fnagi.2020.00022

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bohannon, R.W., Smith, M.B., & Larkin, P.A. (1986). Relationship between independent sitting balance and side of hemiparesis. Physical Therapy, 66(6), 944945. PubMed ID: 3714811 doi:10.1093/ptj/66.6.944

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bossers, W.J., van der Woude, L.H., Boersma, F., Hortobágyi, T., Scherder, E.J., & van Heuvelen, M.J. (2015). A 9-week aerobic and strength training program improves cognitive and motor function in patients with dementia: A randomized, controlled trial. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(11), 11061116. PubMed ID: 25648055 doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2014.12.191

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bowen, D.J., Kreuter, M., Spring, B., Cofta-Woerpel, L., Linnan, L., Weiner, D., … Fernandez, M. (2009). How do we design feasibility studies. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 36(5), 452457. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.02.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, C.M., Rowse, J.L., Ciol, M., & Shumway‐Cook, A. (2003). The effect of cognitive demand on timed up and go performance in older adults with and without Parkinson Disease. Neurology Report, 27(1), 27. doi:10.1097/01253086-200327010-00002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Castleberry, A., & Nolen, A. (2018). Thematic analysis of qualitative research data: Is it as easy as it sounds? Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 10(6), 807815. PubMed ID: 30025784 doi:10.1016/j.cptl.2018.03.019

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cikajlo, I., Rudolf, M., Goljar, N., Burger, H., & Matjačić, Z. (2012). Telerehabilitation using virtual reality task can improve balance in patients with stroke. Disability and Rehabilitation, 34(1), 1318. PubMed ID: 21864205 doi:10.3109/09638288.2011.583308

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Oliveira Silva, F., Ferreira, J.V., Plácido, J., Sant’Anna, P., Araújo, J., Marinho, V., … Camaz Deslandes, A. (2019). Three months of multimodal training contributes to mobility and executive function in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment, but not in those with Alzheimer’s disease: A randomized controlled trial. Maturitas, 126, 2833. PubMed ID: 31239114 doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2019.04.217

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dong, Y., Thompson, C.L., Tan, S.H.J., Lim, L.B.S., Pang, W., & Chen, C.L.H. (2013). Test-retest reliability, convergent validity and practice effects of the RBANS in a memory clinic setting: A pilot study. Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 2(4), 1116. doi:10.4236/ojmp.2013.24B003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donoghue, D., Physiotherapy Research and Older People (PROP) Group, Stokes, E.K. (2009). How much change is true change? The minimum detectable change of the Berg Balance Scale in elderly people. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 41(5), 343346. PubMed ID: 19363567 doi:10.2340/16501977-0337

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fitzpatrick-Lewis, D., Warren, R., Ali, M.U., Sherifali, D., Raina, P. (2015). Treatment for mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ open, 3(4), E419E427. PubMed ID: 26770964 doi:10.9778/cmajo.20150057

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gao, Z., Lee, J.E., McDonough, D.J., & Albers, C. (2020). Virtual reality exercise as a coping strategy for health and wellness promotion in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(6), 1986. doi:10.3390/jcm9061986

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gleason, C.E., Gangnon, R.E., Fischer, B.L., & Mahoney, J.E. (2009). Increased risk for falling associated with subtle cognitive impairment: Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 27(6), 557563. PubMed ID: 19602883 doi:10.1159/000228257

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hancox, J.E., van der Wardt, V., Pollock, K., Booth, V., Vedhara, K., & Harwood, R.H. (2019). Factors influencing adherence to home-based strength and balance exercises among older adults with mild cognitive impairment and early dementia: Promoting Activity, Independence and Stability in Early Dementia (PrAISED). PLoS One, 14(5), e0217387. PubMed ID: 31120953 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0217387

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hobson, N., Dupuis, S.L., Giangregorio, L.M., & Middleton, L.E. (2020). Perceived facilitators and barriers to exercise among older adults with mild cognitive impairment and early dementia. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 28(2), 208218. PubMed ID: 31621645 doi:10.1123/japa.2019-0010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hofheinz, M., & Schusterschitz, C. (2010). Dual task interference in estimating the risk of falls and measuring change: A comparative, psychometric study of four measurements. Clinical Rehabilitation, 24(9), 831842. PubMed ID: 20562166 doi:10.1177/0269215510367993

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Howe, J.A., Inness, E.L., Venturini, A., Williams, J.I., & Verrier, M.C. (2006). The community balance and mobility scale--a balance measure for individuals with traumatic brain injury. Clinical Rehabilitation, 20(10), 885895. PubMed ID: 17008340 doi:10.1177/0269215506072183

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsieh, C.C., Lin, P.S., Hsu, W.C., Wang, J.S., Huang, Y.C., Lim, A.Y., & Hsu, Y.C. (2018). The effectiveness of a virtual reality-based Tai Chi exercise on cognitive and physical function in older adults with cognitive impairment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 46(5–6), 358370. PubMed ID: 30537752 doi:10.1159/000494659

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ismail, Z., Black, S.E., Camicioli, R., Chertkow, H., Herrmann, N., Laforce, R., Jr., … The CCCDTD5 Participants. (2020). Recommendations of the 5th Canadian Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and treatment of dementia. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 16(8), 11821195. doi:10.1002/alz.12105

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jekel, K., Damian, M., Wattmo, C., Hausner, L., Bullock, R., Connelly, P.J., … Frölich, L. (2015). Mild cognitive impairment and deficits in instrumental activities of daily living: A systematic review. Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy, 7(1), 17. PubMed ID: 25815063 doi:10.1186/s13195-015-0099-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Julious, S.A. (2005). Sample size of 12 per group rule of thumb for a pilot study. Pharmaceutical Statistics, 4(4), 287291. doi:10.1002/pst.185

  • Kraal, J.J., Peek, N., Van den Akker-Van Marle, M.E., & Kemps, H.M. (2014). Effects of home-based training with telemonitoring guidance in low to moderate risk patients entering cardiac rehabilitation: Short-term results of the FIT@Home study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 21(2), 2631. doi:10.1177/2047487314552606

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laver, K., George, S., Ratcliffe, J., & Crotty, M. (2011). Virtual reality stroke rehabilitation--hype or hope? Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 58(3), 215219. PubMed ID: 21599688 doi:10.1111/j.1440-1630.2010.00897.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laver, K.E., Lange, B., George, S., Deutsch, J.E., Saposnik, G., & Crotty, M. (2017). Virtual reality for stroke rehabilitation. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 11(11), CD008349. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008349.pub4

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liao, Y.Y., Chen, I.H., Lin, Y.J., Chen, Y., & Hsu, W.C. (2019). Effects of virtual reality-based physical and cognitive training on executive function and dual-task gait performance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized control trial. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 11, 162. PubMed ID: 31379553 doi:10.3389/fnagi.2019.00162

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liao, Y.Y., Tseng, H.Y., Lin, Y.J., Wang, C.J., & Hsu, W.C. (2020). Using virtual reality-based training to improve cognitive function, instrumental activities of daily living and neural efficiency in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, 56(1), 4757. PubMed ID: 31615196 doi:10.23736/S1973-9087.19.05899-4

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lloréns, R., Noé, E., Colomer, C., & Alcañiz, M. (2015). Effectiveness, usability, and cost-benefit of a virtual reality-based telerehabilitation program for balance recovery after stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96(3), 418425.e2. PubMed ID: 25448245 doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.10.019

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lord, S.R., Murray, S.M., Chapman, K., Munro, B., & Tiedemann, A. (2002). Sit-to-stand performance depends on sensation, speed, balance, and psychological status in addition to strength in older people. The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences & Medical Sciences, 57(8), M539M543. PubMed ID: 12145369 doi:10.1093/gerona/57.8.M539

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lundin-Olsson, L., Nyberg, L., & Gustafson, Y. (1998). Attention, frailty, and falls: The effect of a manual task on basic mobility. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 46(6), 758761. PubMed ID: 9625194 doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1998.tb03813.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manera, V., Chapoulie, E., Bourgeois, J., Guerchouche, R., David, R., Ondrej, J., … Robert, P. (2016). A Feasibility study with image-based rendered virtual reality in patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. PLoS One, 11(3), e0151487. PubMed ID: 26990298 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151487

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, A.J., & Shiri-Feshki, M. (2009). Rate of progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia—Meta-analysis of 41 robust inception cohort studies. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 119(4), 252265. PubMed ID: 19236314 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2008.01326.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moreno, A., Wall, K.J., Thangavelu, K., Craven, L., Ward, E., & Dissanayaka, N.N. (2019). A systematic review of the use of virtual reality and its effects on cognition in individuals with neurocognitive disorders. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 5, 834850. PubMed ID: 31799368 doi:10.1016/j.trci.2019.09.016

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Muir-Hunter, S.W., Graham, L., & Montero Odasso, M. (2015). Reliability of the Berg Balance Scale as a clinical measure of balance in community-dwelling older adults with mild to moderate Alzheimer Disease: A pilot study. Physiotherapy Canada, 67(3), 255262. PubMed ID: 26839454 doi:10.3138/ptc.2014-32

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oreská, Ľ., Slobodová, L., Vajda, M., Kaplánová, A., Tirpáková, V., Cvečka, J., … Sedliak, M. (2020). The effectiveness of two different multimodal training modes on physical performance in elderly. European Journal of Translational Myology, 30(1), 88. PubMed ID: 32499886 doi:10.4081/ejtm.2019.8820

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Padala, K.P., Padala, P.R., Lensing, S.Y., Dennis, R.A., Bopp, M.M., Roberson, P.K., & Sullivan, D.H. (2017). Home-based exercise program improves balance and fear of falling in community-dwelling older adults with mild Alzheimer’s Disease: A pilot study. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 59(2), 565574. doi:10.3233/JAD-170120

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pandya, S.Y., Clem, M.A., Silva, L.M., & Woon, F.L. (2016). Does mild cognitive impairment always lead to dementia? A review. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 369, 5762. PubMed ID: 27653867 doi:10.1016/j.jns.2016.07.055

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, J.H., Liao, Y., Kim, D.R., Song, S., Lim, J.H., Park, H., … Park, K.W. (2020). Feasibility and tolerability of a culture-based virtual reality (VR) training program in patients with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled pilot study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 3030. doi:10.3390/ijerph17093030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, J.S., Jung, Y.J., & Lee, G. (2020). Virtual reality-based cognitive-motor rehabilitation in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled study on motivation and cognitive function. Healthcare, 8(3), 335. doi:10.3390/healthcare8030335

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Patel, A., Jameson, K.A., Edwards, M.H., Ward, K., Gale, C.R., Cooper, C., & Dennison, E.M. (2018). Mild cognitive impairment is associated with poor physical function but not bone structure or density in late adulthood: Findings from the Hertfordshire cohort study. Archives of Osteoporosis, 13(1), 44. PubMed ID: 29691721 doi:10.1007/s11657-018-0455-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Petersen R.C. (2016). Mild cognitive impairment. Continuum, 22(2), 404418. doi:10.1212/CON.0000000000000313

  • Randolph, C., Tierney, M.C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T.N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20(3), 310319. PubMed ID: 9845158 doi:10.1076/jcen.20.3.310.823

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodakowski, J., Saghafi, E., Butters, M.A., & Skidmore, E.R. (2015). Non-pharmacological interventions for adults with mild cognitive impairment and early stage dementia: An updated scoping review. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 43–44, 3853. PubMed ID: 26070444 doi:10.1016/j.mam.2015.06.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sala, G., Jopp, D., Gobet, F., Ogawa, M., Ishioka, Y., Masui, Y., … Gondo, Y. (2019). The impact of leisure activities on older adults’ cognitive function, physical function, and mental health. PLoS One, 14(11), e0225006. PubMed ID: 31703115 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0225006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schaubert, K.L., & Bohannon, R.W. (2005). Reliability and validity of three strength measures obtained from community-dwelling elderly persons. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19(3), 717720. PubMed ID: 16095431 doi:10.1519/R-15954.1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schepker, C.A., Leveille, S.G., Pedersen, M.M., Ward, R.E., Kurlinski, L.A., Grande, L., … Bean, J.F. (2016). Effect of pain and mild cognitive impairment on mobility. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 64(1), 138143. PubMed ID: 26782863 doi:10.1111/jgs.13869

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheehy, L., Finestone, H., Knoefel, F., Yang, C., Bilodeau, M., Welch, V., … Sveistrup, H. (2018, June 26-28). Home-based virtual reality training for adults with mild cognitive impairment: Preliminary results of a feasibility telerehabilitation study. [Conference presentation]. 23rd Annual CyberPsychology, CyberTherapy & Social Networking Conference, Gatineau, Quebec, Canada. https://interactivemediainstitute.com/cypsy23/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/FinalProg_CYPSY23complete-2.pdf.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheehy, L., Taillon-Hobson, A., Finestone, H., Bilodeau, M., Yang, C., Hafizi, D., & Sveistrup, H. (2020). Centre of pressure displacements produced in sitting during virtual reality training in younger and older adults and patients who have had a stroke. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 15(8), 924932. PubMed ID: 31219364 doi:10.1080/17483107.2019.1629118

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shumway-Cook, A., Brauer, S., & Woollacott, M. (2000). Predicting the probability for falls in community-dwelling older adults using the timed up & go test. Physical Therapy, 80(9), 896903. PubMed ID: 10960937 doi:10.1093/ptj/80.9.896

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singh, U., & Sharma, V. (2015). Validity and reliability of community integration questionnaire in elderly. International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, 4(1), 19. doi:10.5455/ijhrs.000000070

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ströhle, A., Schmidt, D.K., Schultz, F., Fricke, N., Staden, T., Hellweg, R., … Rieckmann, N. (2015). Drug and exercise treatment of Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis of effects on cognition in randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 23(12), 12341249. PubMed ID: 26601726 doi:10.1016/j.jagp.2015.07.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, M.E., Boripuntakul, S., Toson, B., Close, J., Lord, S.R., Kochan, N.A., … Delbaere, K. (2019). The role of cognitive function and physical activity in physical decline in older adults across the cognitive spectrum. Aging & Mental Health, 23(7), 863871. PubMed ID: 29798680 doi:10.1080/13607863.2018.1474446

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Telenius, E.W., Engedal, K., & Bergland, A. (2015). Inter-rater reliability of the Berg Balance Scale, 30s chair stand test and 6 m walking test, and construct validity of the Berg Balance Scale in nursing home residents with mild-to-moderate dementia. BMJ Open, 5(9), e008321. PubMed ID: 26346874 doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008321

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thapa, N., Park, H.J., Yang, J.G., Son, H., Jang, M., Lee, J., … Park, H. (2020). The effect of a virtual reality-based intervention program on cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized control trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(5), 1283. doi:10.3390/jcm9051283

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thornton, M., Marshall, S., McComas, J., Finestone, H., McCormick, A., & Sveistrup, H. (2005). Benefits of activity and virtual reality based balance exercise programmes for adults with traumatic brain injury: Perceptions of participants and their caregivers. Brain Injury, 19(12), 9891000. PubMed ID: 16263641 doi:10.1080/02699050500109944

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tiedemann, A., Shimada, H., Sherrington, C., Murray, S., & Lord, S. (2008). The comparative ability of eight functional mobility tests for predicting falls in community-dwelling older people. Age and Ageing, 37(4), 430435. PubMed ID: 18487264 doi:10.1093/ageing/afn100

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tuena, C., Pedroli, E., Trimarchi, P.D., Gallucci, A., Chiappini, M., Goulene, K., … Stramba-Badiale, M. (2020). Usability issues of clinical and research applications of virtual reality in older people: A systematic review. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14, 93. PubMed ID: 32322194 doi:10.3389/fnhum.2020.00093

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Uemura, K., Shimada, H., Makizako, H., Doi, T., Tsutsumimoto, K., Lee, S., … Suzuki, T. (2015). Effects of mild cognitive impairment on the development of fear of falling in older adults: A prospective cohort study. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 16(12), 1104.e91104.e13. doi:10.1016/j.jamda.2015.09.014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vaismoradi, M., Turunen, H., & Bondas, T. (2013). Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study. Nursing & Health Sciences, 15(3), 398405. PubMed ID: 23480423 doi:10.1111/nhs.12048

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van der Wardt, V., Hancox, J., Pollock, K., Logan, P., Vedhara, K., & Harwood, R.H. (2020). Physical activity engagement strategies in people with mild cognitive impairment or dementia—A focus group study. Aging & Mental Health, 24(8), 13261333. PubMed ID: 30957521 doi:10.1080/13607863.2019.1590308

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • van Onzenoort, H.A., Menger, F.E., Neef, C., Verberk, W.J., Kroon, A.A., de Leeuw, P.W., & van der Kuy, P.H. (2011). Participation in a clinical trial enhances adherence and persistence to treatment: A retrospective cohort study. Hypertension, 58(4), 573578. PubMed ID: 21825228 doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.171074

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weber, M., Van Ancum, J., Bergquist, R., Taraldsen, K., Gordt, K., Mikolaizak, A.S., … Schwenk, M. (2018). Concurrent validity and reliability of the Community Balance and Mobility scale in young-older adults. BMC Geriatrics, 18(1), 156. PubMed ID: 29970010 doi:10.1186/s12877-018-0845-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willer, B., & Rosenthal, M. (1993). Assessment of community integration following rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 8(2), 75. doi:10.1097/00001199-199308020-00009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, R.S., Leurgans, S.E., Boyle, P.A., & Bennett, D.A. (2011). Cognitive decline in prodromal Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Archives of Neurology, 68(3), 351356. PubMed ID: 21403020 doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.31

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 4920 1037 79
Full Text Views 123 86 10
PDF Downloads 121 49 5