Acute Effects of Single- Versus Double-Leg Postactivation Potentiation on Postural Balance of Older Women: An Age-Matched Controlled Study

in Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $77.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $103.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $147.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $196.00

Aims: To compare the postactivation potentiation effects of isometric contraction until failure in double- and single-leg tasks on older women’s balance. Methods: The one-legged balance test was performed before and immediately after a rise-to-toes task until the task failure. Older women were divided into two groups: a group performed the task with double leg (n = 43) and the other group with single-leg support (n = 55). Results: The single-leg group showed slower velocity of sway post rise-to-toes task (pre = 4.02 ± 1; post = 3.78 ± 1.15 m/s; p = .04) without differences for the center of pressure path length (pre = 79 ± 21; post = 75 ± 23 cm; p = .08). In the double-leg group, faster velocity of sway (pre = 4 ± 1.22; post = 4.25 ± 1.13; p = .03) and increased center of pressure path length (pre = 80 ± 24; post = 85 ± 23 cm; p = .03) were observed after the task. Conclusions: The single-leg group showed improved balance outcomes due to postactivation potentiation, while the double-leg group showed worsened balance consistent with muscle fatigue.

Fernandes, Queiroz, and A.C. Barbosa are with the PhD Program in Physical Education, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fernandes, Souza, Oliveira, M.A. Barbosa, and A.C. Barbosa are with the Musculoskeletal Research Group—NIME, Department of Physical Therapy, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Miarka is with the Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

A.C. Barbosa (alexwbarbosa@hotmail.com) is corresponding author.
  • Adkin, A.L., Frank, J.S., Carpenter, M.G., & Peysar, G.W. (2002). Fear of falling modifies anticipatory postural control. Experimental Brain Research, 143(2), 160170. PubMed ID: 11880892 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allen, T.J., Leung, M., & Proske, U. (2010). The effect of fatigue from exercise on human limb position sense. The Journal of Physiology, 588(8), 13691377. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baudry, S., Klass, M., & Duchateau, J. (2005). Postactivation potentiation influences differently the nonlinear summation of contractions in young and elderly adults. Journal of Applied Physiology, 98(4), 12431250. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baudry, S., Klass, M., & Duchateau, J. (2008). Postactivation potentiation of short tetanic contractions is differently influenced by stimulation frequency in young and elderly adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 103(4), 449459. PubMed ID: 18392844 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Behm, D.G., Button, D.C., Barbour, G., Butt, J.C., & Young, W.B. (2004). Conflicting effects of fatigue and potentiation on voluntary force. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 18(2), 365372. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bellew, J.W., & Fenter, P.C. (2006). Control of balance differs after knee or ankle fatigue in older women. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87(11), 14861489. PubMed ID: 17084124 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergmann, J., Kramer, A., & Gruber, M. (2013). Repetitive hops induce postactivation potentiation in triceps surae as well as an increase in the jump height of subsequent maximal drop jumps. PLoS One, 8(10), e77705. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Billot, M., Simoneau, E.M., Van Hoecke, J., & Martin, A. (2010). Age-related relative increases in electromyography activity and torque according to the maximal capacity during upright standing. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 109(4), 669680. PubMed ID: 20213469 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Binda, S.M., Culham, E.G., & Brouwer, B. (2003). Balance, muscle strength, and fear of falling in older adults. Experimental Aging Research, 29(2), 205219. PubMed ID: 12623729 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bisson, E.J., Chopra, S., Azzi, E., Morgan, A., & Bilodeau, M. (2010). Acute effects of fatigue of the plantarflexor muscles on different postural tasks. Gait & Posture, 32(4), 482486. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bisson, E.J., Remaud, A., Boyas, S., Lajoie, Y., & Bilodeau, M. (2012). Effects of fatiguing isometric and isokinetic ankle exercises on postural control while standing on firm and compliant surfaces. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 9(1), 39. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blazevich, A.J., & Babault, N. (2019). Post-activation potentiation versus post-activation performance enhancement in humans: Historical perspective, underlying mechanisms, and current issues. Frontiers in Physiology, 10, 1359. PubMed ID: 31736781 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caramelli, P., & Nitrini, R. (2000). Como avaliar de forma breve e objetiva o estado mental de um paciente? Revista Da Associacao Medica Brasileira, 46(4), 301. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cattagni, T., Scaglioni, G., Laroche, D., Gremeaux, V., & Martin, A. (2016). The involvement of ankle muscles in maintaining balance in the upright posture is higher in elderly fallers. Experimental Gerontology, 77, 3845. PubMed ID: 26899564 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Christie, A., Snook, E.M., & Kent-Braun, J.A. (2011). Systematic review and meta-analysis of skeletal muscle fatigue in old age. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(4), 568577. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, D.J., & Fielding, R.A. (2012). Neuromuscular contributions to age-related weakness. Journals of Gerontology—Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 67(1), 4147. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Assis Ferreira, S.L., Panissa, V.L.G., Miarka, B., & Franchini, E. (2012). Postactivation potentiation: Effect of various recovery intervals on bench press power performance. 26(3), 739744.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Oliveira, J.J., Crisp, A.H., Barbosa, C.G.R., de Souza e Silva, A., Baganha, R.J., & Verlengia, R. (2017). Effect of postactivation potentiation on short sprint performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, 8(4), 18. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deschenes, M.R. (2011). Motor unit and neuromuscular junction remodeling with aging. Current Aging Science, 4(3), 209220. PubMed ID: 21529328 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fowles, J.R., & Green, H.J. (2003). Coexistence of potentiation and low-frequency fatigue during voluntary exercise in human skeletal muscle. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 81(12), 10921100. PubMed ID: 14719027 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • French, D.N., Kraemer, W.J., & Cooke, C.B. (2003). Changes in dynamic exercise performance following a sequence of preconditioning isometric muscle actions. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 17(4), 678685.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gago, P., Arndt, A., & Ekblom, M.M. (2017). Post activation potentiation of the plantarflexors: Implications of knee angle variations. Journal of Human Kinetics, 57(1), 2938. PubMed ID: 28713456 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gago, P., Arndt, A., Tarassova, O., & Ekblom, M.M. (2014). Post activation potentiation can be induced without impairing tendon stiffness. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(11), 22992308. PubMed ID: 25048072 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gago, P., Zoellner, A., Cezar, J., & Ekblom, M.M. (2020). Post activation potentiation and concentric contraction performance: Effects on rate of torque development, neuromuscular efficiency and tensile properties. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 34(6), 16001608. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gourgoulis, Y., Aggeloussis, N., Kasimatis, P., Mavromatis, G., & Garas, A. (2003). Effect of a submaximal half-squats warm-up program on vertical jumping ability. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 17(2), 342344.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graham, D.F., Carty, C.P., Lloyd, D.G., & Barrett, R.S. (2015). Biomechanical predictors of maximal balance recovery performance amongst community-dwelling older adults. Experimental Gerontology, 66, 3946. PubMed ID: 25871728 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hamada, T., Sale, D.G., MacDougall, J.D., & Tarnopolsky, M.A. (2000). Postactivation potentiation, fiber type, and twitch contraction time in human knee extensor muscles. Journal of Applied Physiology, 88(6), 21312137. PubMed ID: 10846027 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henneman, E., Somjen, G., & Carpenter, D.O. (1965). Functional significance of cell size in spinal motoneurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, 28(3), 560580. PubMed ID: 14328454 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Heroux, M.E., Dakin, C.J., Luu, B.L., Inglis, J.T., & Blouin, J.-S. (2014). Absence of lateral gastrocnemius activity and differential motor unit behavior in soleus and medial gastrocnemius during standing balance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(2), 140148. PubMed ID: 24311748 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Horak, F. (2016). Postural strategies associated with somatosensory and vestibular loss. Experimental Brain Research, 82(1), 167177. doi:

  • Hwang, I.-S., Huang, C.-T., Cherng, R.-J., & Huang, C.-C. (2006). Postural fluctuations during pointing from a unilateral or bilateral stance. Human Movement Science, 25(2), 275291. PubMed ID: 16458377 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jalali, M.M., Gerami, H., Heidarzadeh, A., & Soleimani, R. (2015). Balance performance in older adults and its relationship with falling. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 27(3), 287296. PubMed ID: 25286899 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, M.A., Polgar, J., Weightman, D., & Appleton, D. (1973). Data on the distribution of fibre types in thirty-six human muscles. An autopsy study. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 18(1), 111129. PubMed ID: 4120482 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, N.A., Hammond, K.G., Stec, M.J., Bickel, C.S., Windham, S.T., Tuggle, S.C., & Bamman, M.M. (2018). Quantification and characterization of grouped type I myofibers in human aging. Muscle and Nerve, 57(1), E52E59. PubMed ID: 28561923 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lacroix, A., Hortobágyi, T., Beurskens, R., & Granacher, U. (2017). Effects of supervised vs. unsupervised training programs on balance and muscle strength in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 47(11), 23412361. PubMed ID: 28573401 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levy, S.S., Thralls, K.J., & Kviatkovsky, S.A. (2016). Validity and reliability of a portable balance tracking system, BTrackS, in older adults. Journal of Geriatric Physical Therapy, 41(2), 102107. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lexell, J., & Downham, D.Y. (1991). The occurrence of fibre-type grouping in healthy human muscle: A quantitative study of cross-sections of whole vastus lateralis from men between 15 and 83 years. Acta Neuropathologica, 81, 377381. PubMed ID: 2028741 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lima, L.C.R., Oliveira, F.B.D., Oliveira, T.P., de Oliveira Assumpção, C., Greco, C.C., Cardozo, A.C., & Denadai, B.S. (2014). Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment. BioMed Research International, 2014, 126961. PubMed ID: 25133157 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Maki, B.E., & McIlroy, W.E. (1996). Postural control in the older adult. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 12(4), 635658. PubMed ID: 8890108 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKinnon, N.B., Connelly, D.M., Rice, C.L., Hunter, S.W., & Doherty, T.J. (2017). Neuromuscular contributions to the age-related reduction in muscle power: Mechanisms and potential role of high velocity power training. Ageing Research Reviews, 35, 147154. PubMed ID: 27697547 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miarka, B., Del Vecchio, F.B., & Franchini, E. (2011). Acute effects and postactivation potentiation in the special judo fitness. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(2), 427431. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miyamoto, N., Kanehisa, H., Fukunaga, T., & Kawakami, Y. (2011). Effect of postactivation potentiation on the maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric torque in humans. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(1), 186192. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, S, Colberg, S., Mariano, M., Parson, H., & Vinik, A. (2010). Balance Training Reduces Falls Risk in older individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 33(4), 748750. PubMed ID: 20097781 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morrison, S., Colberg, S.R., Parson, H.K., Neumann, S., Handel, R., Vinik, E.J., . . . Vinik, A.I. (2016). Walking-induced fatigue leads to increased falls risk in older adults. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 17(5), 402409. PubMed ID: 26825684 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nilwik, R., Snijders, T., Leenders, M., Groen, B.B.L., van Kranenburg, J., Verdijk, L.B., & van Loon, L.J.C. (2013). The decline in skeletal muscle mass with aging is mainly attributed to a reduction in type II muscle fiber size. Experimental Gerontology, 48(5), 492498. PubMed ID: 23425621 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Connor, S.M., Baweja, H.S., & Goble, D.J. (2016). Validating the BTrackS balance plate as a low cost alternative for the measurement of sway-induced center of pressure. Journal of Biomechanics, 49(16), 41424145. PubMed ID: 27789036 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Parreira, R.B., Amorim, C.F., Gil, A.W., Teixeira, D.C., Bilodeau, M., & Da Silva, R.A. (2013). Effect of trunk extensor fatigue on the postural balance of elderly and young adults during unipodal task. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(8), 19891996. PubMed ID: 23543068 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piirtola, M., & Era, P. (2006). Force platform measurements as predictors of falls among older people—A review. Gerontology, 52(1), 116. PubMed ID: 16439819 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reid, K.F., Pasha, E., Doros, G., Clark, D.J., Patten, C., Phillips, E.M., . . . Fielding, R.A. (2014). Longitudinal decline of lower extremity muscle power in healthy and mobility-limited older adults: Influence of muscle mass, strength, composition, neuromuscular activation and single fiber contractile properties. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 114(1), 2939. PubMed ID: 24122149 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sale, D.G. (2002). Postactivation potentiation: Role in human performance. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 30(3), 138143. PubMed ID: 12150573 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sawilowsky, S.S. (2009). New effect size rules of thumb. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 8(2), 597599. doi:

  • Shim, A., Harr, B., & Waller, M. (2018). Does a relationship exist between lower body power and balance scores among older adults? The Permanente Journal, 22, 17096. PubMed ID: 29616904 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shima, N., Rice, C.L., Ota, Y., & Yabe, K. (2006). The effect of postactivation potentiation on the mechanomyogram. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 96, 1723. PubMed ID: 16222539 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Siddiqi, A., Kumar, D., & Arjunan, S. (2015). Age-related motor unit remodeling in the Tibialis Anterior. In 2015 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC) (Vol. 2015, pp. 60906093). IEEE. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skelton, D.A., Kennedy, J., & Rutherford, O.M. (2002). Explosive power and asymmetry in leg muscle function in frequent fallers and non-fallers aged over 65. Age and Ageing, 31(2), 119125. PubMed ID: 11937474 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skurvydas, A., Mamkus, G., Kamandulis, S., Dudoniene, V., Valanciene, D., & Westerblad, H. (2016). Mechanisms of force depression caused by different types of physical exercise studied by direct electrical stimulation of human quadriceps muscle. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(11–12), 22152224. PubMed ID: 27637589 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Snejdrlova, M., Kalvach, Z., Topinkova, E., Vrablik, M., Prochazkova, R., Kvasilova, M., . . . Ceska, R. (2011). APOE polymorphism as a potential determinant of functional fitness in the elderly regardless of nutritional status. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 32(Suppl. 2), 5154. PubMed ID: 22101883

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tillin, N.A., & Bishop, D. (2009). Factors modulating post-activation potentiation and its effect on performance of subsequent explosive activities. Sports Medicine, 39(2), 147166. PubMed ID: 19203135 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tsai, Y.C., Hsieh, L.F., & Yang, S. (2014). Age-related changes in posture response under a continuous and unexpected perturbation. Journal of Biomechanics, 47(2), 482490. PubMed ID: 24268755 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vieira, E.R., Palmer, R.C., & Chaves, P.H.M. (2016). Prevention of falls in older people living in the community. British Medical Journal, 353, i1419. PubMed ID: 27125497 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vuillerme, N., & Pinsault, N. (2007). Re-weighting of somatosensory inputs from the foot and the ankle for controlling posture during quiet standing following trunk extensor muscles fatigue. Experimental Brain Research, 183(3), 323327. PubMed ID: 17643234 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xenofondos, A., Bassa, E., Vrabas, I.S., Kotzamanidis, C., & Patikas, D.A. (2017). Muscle twitch torque during two different in volume isometric exercise protocols. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 32(2), 578586. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 212 212 41
Full Text Views 3 3 0
PDF Downloads 1 1 0