This study examined the extent to which improved collaboration between sport scientists and coaches of high performance athletes might improve knowledge transfer in sport. The research includes a review of the extant literature on collaboration to develop a model of successful collaborative practice. The model is then empirically tested to determine whether such a model can improve our knowledge of the mechanisms for effective knowledge transfer in sport. To accomplish our purpose, we interviewed 38 high performance coaches employed in a variety of university settings and from a variety of sports to determine the factors that inhibit and facilitate, knowledge transfer. The model was used to guide the data analysis. The results showed that 14 of the coaches interviewed were involved in collaborative relationships with sport scientists and the factors in the model did help to explain why some coaches collaborate while other coaches may not. Factors such as different types of motivation, the personal characteristics of the coach and the structural characteristics within which the coach operates seemed to influence the extent of the collaboration between the sport scientist and the coach and ultimately the effective transfer of sport science knowledge. Sport organizations can apply these findings to improve the effectiveness of knowledge transfer to coaches of high performance athletes.