Sexual Assault on College Campuses: What Sport Psychology Practitioners Need to Know

in Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $58.00

1 year subscription

USD $77.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $110.00

2 year subscription

USD $144.00

Sexual assault is highly prevalent among the population of college students, which includes student-athletes. The context of athletics introduces unique risk factors related to alcohol consumption and aspects of sport culture, opportunities for prevention, and ethical considerations and consequences of disclosing and reporting sexual assault. Sport psychology practitioners are closely connected to athletes, and they can potentially serve an important and influential role in prevention and response to sexual assault. In this article, we review literature on sexual assault in college, highlight relevant aspects of the athletic context, summarize legislation and ethical considerations pertinent to sexual assault reporting, and provide practical recommendations for sport psychology practitioners so that they may contribute to preventative efforts and better serve student-athletes who are victims and survivors of sexual assault.

Shortway and Oganesova are with the Dept. of Advanced Studies in Psychology, Nathan Weiss Graduate College, Kean University, Hillside, NJ. Vincent is with Counseling, Health, and Wellness Center, SUNY Oneonta, Oneonta, NY.

Address author correspondence to Kendahl Shortway at shortwak@kean.edu.
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology
Article Sections
References
  • AbbeyA. (2002). Alcohol-related sexual assault: A common problem among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol Supplement (14) 118128. PubMed ID: 12022717 doi:10.15288/jsas.2002.s14.118

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Abdul-JabbarK. (2015). Colleges need to stop protecting sexual predators. TIME. Retrieved from http://time.com/3689368/campus-sexual-assault-athletes-yes-means-yes/

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AhrensC.E. (2002). Silent and silenced: Disclosure and non-disclosure of sexual assault. Dissertation Abstracts International 63(3-B) 1553. (UMI No. 3047842).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AhrensC.E. (2006). Being silenced: The impact of negative social reactions on the disclosure of rape. Community Psychology 38263274. doi:10.1007/s10464-006-9070-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AhrensC.E. & AldanaE. (2012). The ties that bind: Understanding the impact of sexual assault disclosure on survivors’ relationships with friends, family, and partners. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation 13(2) 226243. PubMed ID: 22375809 doi:10.1080/15299732.2012.642738

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AhrensC.E.StansellJ. & JenningsA. (2010). To tell or not to tell: The impact of disclosure on sexual assault survivors’ recovery. Violence and Victims 25(5) 631648. PubMed ID: 21061869 doi:10.1891/0886-6708.25.5.631

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AlvidrezJ.ShumwayM.MorazesJ. & BoccellariA. (2011). Ethnic disparities in mental health treatment engagement among female sexual assault victims. Journal of Aggression Maltreatment & Trauma 20(4) 415425. doi:10.1080/10926771.2011.568997

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

  • BanyardV.L.PlanteE.G. & MoynihanM.M. (2004). Bystander education: Bringing a broader community perspective to sexual violence prevention. Journal of Community Psychology 32(1) 6179. doi:10.1002/jcop.10078

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BelknapJ. (2010). Rape: Too hard to report and too easy to discredit victims. Violence Against Women 1613351344. PubMed ID: 21164211 doi:10.1177/1077801210387749

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BreidingM.J.SmithS.G.BasileK.C.WaltersM.L.ChenJ. & MerrickM.T. (2014). Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization in the United States—2011. Center for Disease Control and Prevention MMWR. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss6308a1.htm

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bryant-DavisT.ChungH. & TillmanS. (2009). From the margins to the center: Ethnic minority women and the mental health effects of sexual assault. Trauma Violence & Abuse 10(4) 330357. PubMed ID: 19578029 doi:10.1177/1524838009339755

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CantorD.FisherB.ChibnallS.BruceC.TownsendR.ThomasG. & LeeH. (2015). Report on the AAU Campus Climate Survey on Sexual Assault and Sexual Misconduct. Rockville, MD: Westat.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChangE.C.YuT.JilaniZ.FowlerE.E.YuE.A. & LinJ. (2015). Hope under assault: Understanding the impact of sexual assault on the relation between hope and suicidal risk in college students. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 34(3) 221238. doi:10.1521/jscp.2015.34.3.221

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ClassenC.C.PaleshO.G. & AggarwalR. (2005). Sexual revictimization: A review of empirical literature. Trauma Violence Abuse 6103129. PubMed ID: 15753196 doi:10.1177/1524838005275087

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoulterR.W.MairC.MillerE.BlosnichJ.R.MatthewsD.D. & McCauleyH.L. (2017). Prevalence of past-year sexual assault victimization among undergraduate students: Exploring differences by and intersections of gender identity, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity. Prevention Science 18(6) 726736. PubMed ID: 28210919 doi:10.1007/s11121-017-0762-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CrossetT.BenedictJ. & MacDonaldM. (1995). Male student athletes reported for sexual assault: A survey of campus police departments and judicial affairs offices. Journal of Sport & Social Issues 19126140. doi:10.1177/019372395019002002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DardisC.M.KraftK.M. & GidyczC.A. (2017). “Miscommunication” and undergraduate women’s conceptualizations of sexual assault: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. PubMed ID: 29294880 doi:10.1177/0886260517726412

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeMatteoD.GallowayM.ArnoldS. & PatelU. (2015). Sexual assault on college campuses: A 50-state survey of criminal sexual assault statutes and their relevance to campus sexual assault. Psychology Public Policy and Law 21(3) 227238. doi:10.1037/law0000055

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DemingM.E.CovanE.K.SwanS.C. & BillingsD.L. (2013). Exploring rape myths, gendered norms, group processing, and the social context of rape among college women: A qualitative analysis. Violence against Women 19(4) 465485. PubMed ID: 23637315 doi:10.1177/1077801213487044

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EdwardsK.M.SylaskaK.M.BarryJ.E.MoynihanM.M.BanyardV.L.CohnE.S. . . . WardS.K. (2015). Physical dating violence, sexual violence, and unwanted pursuit victimization: A comparison of incidence rates among sexual-minority and heterosexual college students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 30(4) 580600. PubMed ID: 24923891 doi:10.1177/0886260514535260

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EdwardsK.M.TurchikJ.A.DardisC.M.ReynoldsN. & GidyczC.A. (2011). Rape myths: History, individual and institutional-level presence, and implications for change. Sex Roles 65(11-12) 761773. doi:10.1007/s11199-011-9943-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FanflikP.L. (2007). Victim responses to sexual assault: Counterintuitive or simply adaptive. American Prosecutors Research Institute. Retrieved from http://ndaa.org/pdf/pub_victim_responses_sexual_assault.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FordJ.A. (2007). Substance use among college athletes: A comparison based on sport/team affiliation. Journal of American College Health 55(6) 367373. PubMed ID: 17517549 doi:10.3200/JACH.55.6.367-373

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foundation for Individual Rights in Education. (2018). FIRE’s guide to due process and campus justice. Retrieved from https://www.thefire.org/first-amendment-library/special-collections/fire-guides/fires-guide-to-due-process-and-campus-justice/fires-guide-to-due-process-and-fair-procedure-on-campus-full-text

    • Export Citation
  • GidyczC.A.OrchowskiL.M. & BerkowitzA.D. (2011). Preventing sexual aggression among college men: An evaluation of a social norms and bystander intervention program. Violence Against Women 17(6) 720742. PubMed ID: 21571742 doi:10.1177/1077801211409727

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GidyczC.A.WarkentinJ.B. & OrchowskiL.M. (2007). Predictors of perpetration of verbal, physical, and sexual violence: A prospective analysis of college men. Psychology of Men & Masculinity 8(2) 7994. doi:10.1037/1524-9220.8.2.79

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GrahamL.M.Treves-KaganS.MageeE.P.DeLongS.M.AshleyO.S.MacyR.J. . . . BowlingJ.M. (2017). Sexual assault policies and consent definitions: A nationally representative investigation of US colleges and universities. Journal of School Violence 16(3) 243258. doi:10.1080/15388220.2017.1318572

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HarwayM. & SteelJ.H. (2015). Studying masculinity and sexual assault across organizational culture groups: Understanding perpetrators. Psychology of Men & Masculinity 16(4) 374378. doi:10.1037/a0039694

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HumphreyS.E. & KahnA.S. (2000). Fraternities, athletic teams, and rape: Importance of identification with a risky group. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 15(12) 13131322. doi:10.1177/088626000015012005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JordanC.E.CombsJ.L. & SmithG.T. (2014). An exploration of victimization and academic performance among college women. Trauma Violence & Abuse: A Review Journal 15(3) 191200 . doi:10.1177/1524838014520637

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KatzJ. (1995). Reconstructing masculinity in the locker room: The mentors in violence prevention project. Harvard Educational Review 65(2) 163175. doi:10.17763/haer.65.2.55533188520136u1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KatzJ. (2018). Bystander training as leadership training: Notes on the origins, philosophy, and pedagogy of the mentors in violence prevention model. Violence Against Women2417551776. doi:10.1177/1077801217753322.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KimbleM.NeacsiuA.D.FlackW.F. & HornerJ. (2008). Risk of unwanted sex for college women: Evidence for a red zone. Journal of American College Health 57(3) 331338. PubMed ID: 18980890 doi:10.3200/JACH.57.3.331-338

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KossM.P. & GainesJ.A. (1993). The prediction of sexual aggression by alcohol use, athletic participations, and fraternity affiliation. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 8(1) 94108. doi:10.1177/088626093008001007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KrebsC.P.BarrickK.LindquistC.H.CrosbyC.M.BoydC. & BoganY. (2011). The sexual assault of undergraduate women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Journal of Interpersonal Violence 26(18) 36403666. PubMed ID: 21602199 doi:10.1177/0886260511403759

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KrebsC.P.LindquistC.H.WarnerT.D.FisherB.S. & MartinS.L. (2009a). College women’s experiences with physically forced, alcohol-or other drug-enabled, and drug-facilitated sexual assault before and since entering college. Journal of American College Health 57(6) 639649. doi:10.3200/JACH.57.6.639-649

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KrebsC.P.LindquistC.H.WarnerT.D.FisherB.S. & MartinS.L. (2009b). The differential risk factors of physically forced and alcohol-or other drug-enabled sexual assault among university women. Violence and Victims 24(3) 302321. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.24.3.302

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LawyerS.ResnickH.BakanicV.BurkettT. & KilpatrickD. (2010). Forcible, drug-facilitated, and incapacitated rape and sexual assault among undergraduate women. Journal of American College Health 58(5) 453460. PubMed ID: 20304757 doi:10.1080/07448480903540515

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LindoJ.M.SiminskiP. & SwensenI.D. (2016). College party culture and sexual assault. IZA Discussion Papers 9700140.

  • LindquistC.H.CrosbyC.M.BarrickK.KrebsC.P. & Settles-ReavesB. (2016). Disclosure of sexual assault experiences among undergraduate women at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). Journal of American College Health 64(6) 469480. PubMed ID: 27115202 doi:10.1080/07448481.2016.1181635

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LittletonH. & BreitkopfC.R. (2006). Coping with the experience of rape. Psychology of Women Quarterly 30(1) 106116. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00267.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LittletonH.GrillsA.LayhM. & RudolphK. (2017). Unacknowledged rape and re- victimization risk: Examination of potential mediators. Psychology of Women Quarterly 41(4) 437450. doi:10.1177/0361684317720187

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LittletonH.TabernikH.CanalesE.J. & BackstromT. (2009). Risky situation or harmless fun? A qualitative examination of college women’s bad hook-up and rape scripts. Sex Roles 60(11–12) 793804. doi:10.1007/s11199-009-9586-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LockeB.D. & MahalikJ.R. (2005). Examining masculinity norms, problem drinking, and athletic involvement as predictors of sexual aggression in college men. Journal of Counseling Psychology 52(3) 279283. doi:10.1037/0022-0167.52.3.279

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LoganT.K.WalkerR.ColeJ. & LeukefeldC. (2002). Victimization and substance abuse among women: Contributing factors, interventions, and implications. Review of General Psychology 6(4) 325397. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.4.325

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LoveG.S. & NorrisK.D. (2018). Preventing child sexual abuse in youth sport– new federal legislation takes extraordinary step. Retrieved from https://abusepreventionsystems.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/New-Legislation-Sexual-Abuse-in-Youth-Sport-2-9-2018.pdf

    • Export Citation
  • LukacenaK.M.Reynolds-TylusT. & QuickB.L. (2017). An application of the reasoned action approach to bystander intervention for sexual assault. Health Communication 3418. doi:10.1080/10410236.20171384356

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MartinP.Y. (2016). The rape prone culture of academic contexts: Fraternities and athletics. Gender and Society 30(1) 3043. doi:10.1177/0891243215612708

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCrayK. (2015). Intercollegiate athletes and sexual violence: A review of literature and recommendations for future study. Trauma Violence & Abuse 16438443. PubMed ID: 24903398 doi:10.1177/1524838014537907

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDermottR.C.KilmartinC.McKelveyD.K. & KridelM.M. (2015). College male sexual assault of women and the psychology of men: Past, present, and future directions for research. Psychology of Men & Masculinity 16(4) 355366. doi:10.1037/a0039544

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McFarlaneJ.MalechaA.WatsonK.GistJ.BattenE.HallI. & SmithS. (2005). Intimate partner sexual assault against women: Frequency, health consequences, and treatment outcomes. Obstetrics & Gynecology 105(1) 99108. PubMed ID: 15625149 doi:10.1097/01.AOG.0000146641.98665.b6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McMahonS. (2007). Understanding community-specific rape myths: Exploring student athlete culture. Journal of Women and Social Work 22357370. doi:10.1177/0886109907306331

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McMahonS. & FarmerG.L. (2011). An updated measure for assessing subtle rape myths. Social Work Research 35(2) 7181. doi:10.1093/swr/35.2.71

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MessnerM.A. (1992). Like family: Power, intimacy, and sexuality in male athletes’ friendships. In P.M. Nardi (Ed.) Men’s friendships (pp. 215237). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi:10.4135/9781483325736.n12

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Me Too. (2018). Retrieved from https://metoomvmt.org/

    • Export Citation
  • MoynihanM.M.BanyardV.L.ArnoldJ.S.EcksteinR.P. & StapletonJ.G. (2010). Engaging intercollegiate athletes in preventing and intervening in sexual and intimate partner violence. Journal of American College Health 59(3) 197204. PubMed ID: 21186450 doi:10.1080/07448481.2010.502195

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MuehlenhardC.L.HumphreysT.P.JozkowskiK.N. & PetersonZ.D. (2016). The complexities of sexual consent among college students: A conceptual and empirical review. The Journal of Sex Research 53(4-5) 457487. PubMed ID: 27044475 doi:10.1080/00224499.2016.1146651

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MuehlenhardC.L.PetersonZ.D.HumphreysT.P. & JozkowskiK.N. (2017). Evaluating the one-in-five statistic: Women’s risk of sexual assault while in college. The Journal of Sex Research 54(4-5) 549576. PubMed ID: 28375675 doi:10.1080/00224499.2017.1295014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MurnenS.K. & KohlmanM.H. (2007). Athletic participation, fraternity membership, and sexual aggression among college men: A meta-analytic review. Sex Roles 57145157. doi:10.1007/s11199-007-9225-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2017). Board adopts sexual violence policy. Retrieved from http://www.ncaa.org/about/resources/media-center/news/board-adopts-sexual-violence-policy

    • Export Citation
  • OlsenL. (2017). The #MeToo movement comes to sports, a reckoning long overdue. Retrieved from https://theathletic.com/192516/2017/12/21/the-metoo-movement-comes-to-sports-a-reckoning-long-overdue/

    • Export Citation
  • One Love Foundation. (2018). The escalation workshop. Retrieved from https://www.joinonelove.org/act/escalation-workshop/

    • Export Citation
  • OrchowskiL.M. & GidyczC.A. (2012). To whom do college women confide following sexual assault? A prospective study of predictors of sexual assault disclosure and social reactions. Violence Against Women 18(3) 264288. PubMed ID: 22531082 doi:10.1177/1077801212442917

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OurandJ. (2018). #MeToo shakes sport industry: Policies, procedures getting a fresh look. Retrieved from https://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Journal/Issues/2018/01/22/Sports-in-Society/MeToo.aspx

    • Export Citation
  • Peter-HageneL.C.UllmanS.E. (2014). Social reactions to sexual assault disclosure and problem drinking: Mediating effects of perceived control and PTSD. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 29(8) 14181437. PubMed ID: 24323692 doi:10.1177/0886260513507137

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Planned Parenthood. (2018). What is consent? Retrieved from https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/sex-and-relationships/sexual-consent

    • Export Citation
  • RAINN. (2018). About sexual assault. Retrieved from https://www.rainn.org/about-sexual-assault

    • Export Citation
  • RelyeaM. & UllmanS.E. (2015). Unsupported or turned against: Understanding how two types of negative social reactions to sexual assault relate to post assault outcomes. Psychology of Women Quarterly 39(1) 3752. PubMed ID: 25750475 doi:10.1177/0361684313512610

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SabinaC. & HoL.Y. (2014). Campus and college victim responses to sexual assault and dating violence: Disclosure, service utilization, and service provision. Trauma Violence & Abuse 15(3) 201226. PubMed ID: 24499964 doi:10.1177/1524838014521322

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SinozichS. & LangtonL. (2014). Rape and sexual assault victimization among college-age females 1995–2013. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SmithD. & StewartS. (2003). Sexual aggression and sports participation. Journal of Sport Behavior 24(6) 384394.

  • SokolowB.A. (2012). Who is a mandated reporter, of what?—Getting some clarity. Retrieved from https://www.atixa.org

    • Export Citation
  • StarzynskiL.UllmanS.FilipasH. & TownsendS. (2005). Correlates of women’s sexual assault disclosure to informal and formal support sources. Violence and Victims 20417432. PubMed ID: 16250409

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SuarezE. & GadallaT.M. (2010). Stop blaming the victim: A meta-analysis on rape myths. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 25(11) 20102035. PubMed ID: 20065313 doi:10.1177/0886260509354503

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TillmanS.Bryant-DavisT.SmithK. & MarksA. (2010). Shattering silence: Exploring barriers to disclosure for African American sexual assault survivors. Trauma Violence & Abuse 11(2) 5970. PubMed ID: 20430798 doi:10.1177/1524838010363717

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Times Up. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.timesupnow.com/

    • Export Citation
  • TurchikJ.A. & EdwardsK.M. (2012). Myths about male rape: A literature review. Psychology of Men & Masculinity 13(2) 211226. doi:10.1037/a0023207

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UllmanS.E. & Peter-HageneL.C. (2016). Longitudinal relationships of social reactions, PTSD symptoms, and revictimization in sexual assault survivors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 31(6) 10741094. PubMed ID: 25538120 doi:10.1177/0886260514564069

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UllmanS.E. & RelyeaM. (2016). Social support, coping, and posttraumatic stress symptoms in women sexual assault survivors: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Traumatic Stress 29(6) 500506. PubMed ID: 27862347 doi:10.1002/jts.22143

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Department of Education. (2015). Title IX and Sex Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/tix_dis.html

    • Export Citation
  • U.S. Department of Justice. (2017). Sexual Assault. Retrieved from https://www.justice.gov/ovw/sexual-assault\

    • Export Citation
  • WeiserD.A. (2017). Confronting myths about sexual assault: A feminist analysis of the false report literature. Family Relations 66(1) 4660. doi:10.1111/fare.12235

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WhelanJ. (2011). Ethics code: AASP ethical principles and standards. Retrieved from https://appliedsportpsych.org/about/ethics/ethics-code/

    • Export Citation
  • WootenS.C. (2017). Revealing a hidden curriculum of Black women’s erasure in sexual violence prevention policy. Gender and Education 29(3) 405417. doi:10.1080/09540253.2016.1225012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YoungB.R.DesmaraisS.L.BaldwinJ.A. & ChandlerR. (2017). Sexual coercion practices among undergraduate male recreational athletes, intercollegiate athletes, and non-athletes. Violence Against Women 23(7) 795812. PubMed ID: 27247201 doi:10.1177/1077801216651339

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • YuskoD.A.BuckmanJ.F.WhiteH.R. & PandinaR.J. (2008). Risk for excessive alcohol use and drinking-related problems in college student athletes. Addictive Behaviors 33(12) 15461556. PubMed ID: 18752900 doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.07.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 103 103 42
Full Text Views 12 12 4
PDF Downloads 9 9 2
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar