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The purpose of this study was to examine the types and perceived usefulness of questionnaires used by consultants in applied intervention work with athletes in 2003 and 2017, as well as to understand consultants’ perceptions of the advantages, limitations, and needs regarding the use of questionnaires in consulting. Sport psychology consultants in 2003 (n = 96) and 2017 (n = 106) completed a questionnaire that included Likert-scale questions as well as open-ended questions. The percentage of consultants who used questionnaires decreased from 83% in 2003 to 67% in 2017. Consultants in 2003 rated questionnaires as more useful than consultants in 2017, although the specific questionnaires used by consultants did not change extensively over the 14-year period. Advantages in using questionnaires included efficiency, structure of assessment, consensual validation, and credibility, while limitations included lack of relevance, undermining of athlete-consultant relationship, interpretive problems, and cost and lack of access.
Vealey is with the Department of Kinesiology and Health, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Cooley is with the Dept. of Recreation and Sport Management, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. Nilsson is with the Department of Kinesiology and Health, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Block is with the College of Human Services, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. Galli is with the Health Promotion and Education Program, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.