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A sport-specific, self-report measure of identity foreclosure was developed through a systematic process that included item pool generation, expert review, administration of items to a development sample of intercollegiate student athletes (N = 326), item evaluation, and administration of scales to validation samples of intercollegiate student athletes (N = 322, N = 54, and N = 64, respectively). The process yielded two four-item scales reflecting commitment to the occupational identity of athlete and one 4-item scale reflecting active exploration of roles other than that of athlete that (a) are internally consistent and temporally stable, (b) demonstrate preliminary factorial and convergent validity, and (c) can be used to create indices of identity foreclosure tailored to the sport context. The resulting Sport-Specific Measure of Identity Foreclosure has potential utility as an assessment tool for research and practice with athletes.
Brewer, Caldwell, Petitpas, and Van Raalte are with Springfield College, Springfield, MA, USA. Van Raalte is also with Wuhan Sports University, Wuhan, China. Pans is with University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Cornelius is with the Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.