Psycho-Immunological Effects of Written Emotional Disclosure During Long-Term Injury Rehabilitation

in Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology

Click name to view affiliation

Aditi MankadThe University of Western Australia

Search for other papers by Aditi Mankad in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sandy GordonThe University of Western Australia

Search for other papers by Sandy Gordon in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Karen WallmanThe University of Western Australia

Search for other papers by Karen Wallman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Psychological trauma associated with long-term injury can cause athletes to experience intense stress-like symptoms and considerable negative affect (e.g., Tracey, 2003; Udry, 1997). Due to the nature of competitive sport, however, it is thought that injured athletes inhibit these emotions to the detriment of their physical health. The present study examined Pennebaker’s (1989) emotional disclosure paradigm within a sporting context. It was hypothesized that writing about a traumatic injury would reduce athletes’ mood disturbance and stress during rehabilitation. Further, it was believed that these changes would correspond with an increase in immune expression from pre- to postintervention. Elite injured athletes (N = 9) rehabilitating from anterior cruciate ligament surgery participated in the 3-day writing intervention, consisting of 3 X 20 min writing sessions, during which athletes disclosed negative emotions associated with their injury and rehabilitation experiences. Measures were taken at six time-points (T1-T6), with pre- and postintervention phases lasting for 4 weeks each. Measures consisted of psychological stress (intrusion and avoidance), total mood disturbance, and relative cell-counts/µL for circulating T-cells (CD4/8) and NK cells (CD16/56). Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed a signifcant main effect of time for intrusion, F(5, 70) = 5.83, p =.001, η2 = .29 and avoidance, F(5, 70) = 5.73, p =.002, η2 = 0.29 subscales; mood disturbance, F(5, 70) = 3.71, p= 0.005, η2 = 0.21; and CD4+, F(5, 65) = 2.39, p= 0.048, η2 = .16. Subsequent linear contrasts provided further evidence of significant prepost differences among the stress, mood state, and immune variables. These results suggest that the written disclosure intervention has potential psycho-immunological benefits for athletes rehabilitating from long-term injury.

The authors are with the School of Sport Science, Exercise, and Health at The University of Western Australia in Perth.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 2164 824 148
Full Text Views 20 6 0
PDF Downloads 31 9 0