Development of the Sport Mental Health Continuum—Short Form (Sport MHC-SF)

in Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $58.00

1 year subscription

USD $77.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $110.00

2 year subscription

USD $144.00

Well-being research conducted in competitive athletics has been marred by the lack of a context-specific measurement instrument. The purpose of this study was to adapt the Mental Health Continuum – Short Form (MHC-SF) to create a sport-specific well-being instrument, the Sport Mental Health Continuum—Short Form (Sport MHC-SF), and test its initial psychometric properties. Participants were 287 collegiate athletes from a variety of sports. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) determined a three-factor structure of sport well-being, consisting of subjective, psychological, and social factors, as the model of best fit. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales exceeded .88. Moderate positive correlations were found between Sport MHC-SF subscales and quality of life indices, notably physical and emotional quality of life, demonstrating convergent validity. The Sport MHC-SF will facilitate empirical research by providing a more accurate and comprehensive measurement of well-being for an athletic population.

Foster is with the Stephen Poorman College of Business, Information Systems, and Human Services, Lock Haven University, Lock Haven, PA. Chow is with Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.

Address author correspondence to Brian J. Foster at bjf1202@lockhaven.edu.
Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology
Article Sections
References
  • AdieJ.W.DudaJ.L. & NtoumanisN. (2008). Autonomy support, basic need satisfaction and the optimal functioning of adult male and female sport participants: A test of basic needs theory. Motivation and Emotion 32(3) 189199. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BentlerP.M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin 107(2) 238246. PubMed ID: 2320703 doi:

  • BradburnN.M. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Chicago, IL: Aldine.

  • BrownT.A. (2015). Methodology in the social sciences. In Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CantrilH. (1965). The pattern of human concerns. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

  • ChelladuraiP. & RiemerH.A. (1997). A classification of the facets of athlete satisfaction. Journal of Sport Management 11133159. doi:

  • DeFreeseJ.D. & SmithA.L. (2014). Athlete social support, negative social interactions, and psychological health across a competitive sport season. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 36(6) 619630. PubMed ID: 25602144 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DunnJ.G.H.BouffardM. & RogersW.T. (1999). Assessing item-content relevance in sport psychology scale construction research: Issues and recommendations. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science 3(1) 1536. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EbnerN.C.FreundA.M. & BaltesP.B. (2006). Developmental changes in personal goal orientation from young to late adulthood: From striving for gains to maintenance and prevention of losses. Psychology of Aging 21664678. PubMed ID: 17201488 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FergusonS.J. & GoodwinA.D. (2010). Optimism and well-being in older adults: The mediating role of social support and perceived control. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 714368. PubMed ID: 20718232 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FredricksonB.L. & LosadaM.F. (2005). Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing. American Psychologist 60(7) 678686. PubMed ID: 16221001 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GagnéM.RyanR.M. & BargmannK. (2003). Autonomy support and need satisfaction in the motivation and well-being of gymnasts. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 15372390. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GallagherM.W.LopezS.J. & PreacherK.J. (2009). The hierarchical structure of well- being. Journal of Personality 77(4) 10251050. PubMed ID: 19558444 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GerbingD.W. & AndersonJ.C. (1984). On the meaning of within-factor correlated measurement errors. Journal of Consumer Research 11572580. doi:

  • GillD.L.ChangY.K.MurphyK.M.SpeedK.M.HammondC.C.RodriguezE.A. . . . ShangY.T. (2011). Quality of life assessment for physical activity and health promotion. Applied Research Quality Life 6181200. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GrossJ.J. & JohnO.P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85348362. PubMed ID: 12916575 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HambletonR.K.MerendaP.F. & SpielbergerC.D. (2005). Adapting educational and psychological tests for cross-cultural assessment. Mahway, NJ: Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HooperD.CoughlanJ. & MullenM.R. (2008). Structural equation modeling: Guidelines for determining model fit. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods 6(1) 5360.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HowellA.J. (2009). Flourishing: Achievement-related correlates of students’ well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology 4(1) 113. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HuL. & BentlerP.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal 6(1) 155. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HurleyA.E.ScanduraT.A.SchriesheimC.A.BrannickM.T.SeersA.VanderburgR.J. & WilliamsL.J. (1997). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis guidelines, issues, and alternatives. Journal of Organizational Behavior 18667683. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • InoueY.FunkD.C.WannD.L.YoshidaM. & NakazawaM. (2015). Team identification and postdisaster social well-being: The mediating role of social support. Group Dynamics: Theory Research and Practice 19(1) 3144. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JonesM.V.MeijenC.McCarthyP.J. & SheffieldD. (2009). A theory of challenge and threat states in athletes. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology 2161180. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JoreskögK.G. & SörbomD. (1988). LISREL 7: Guide to the program and applications (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: SPSS.

  • KeyesC.L.M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly 61(2) 121140. doi:

  • KeyesC.L.M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Behavior Research 43207222. PubMed ID: 12096700 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KeyesC.L.M. (2007). Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: A complementary strategy for improving national mental health. American Psychologist 62(2) 95108. PubMed ID: 17324035 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KeyesC.L.M. (2009). Atlanta: Brief description of the mental health continuum short form (MHC-SF). Retrieved from http://www.sociology.emory.edu/ckeyes/

    • Export Citation
  • KeyesC.L.M.WissingM.PotgieterJ.P.TemaneM.KrugerA. & van RooyS. (2008). Evaluation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) in Setswana-speaking South Africans. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 15181192. PubMed ID: 19115439 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LamersS.M.A.WesterhofG.J.BohlmeijerE.T.KloosterP.M.T. & KeyesC.L.M. (2011). Evaluating the psychometric properties of the mental health continuum-short form. Journal of Clinical Psychology 67(1) 99110. PubMed ID: 20973032 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LundqvistC. (2011). Well-being in competitive sports – the feel-good factor? A review of conceptual considerations of well-being. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology 4(2) 109127. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LynnM.R. (1986). Determination and quantification of content validity. Nursing Research 35382385. PubMed ID: 3640358 doi:

  • MacCallumR.C.BrowneM.W. & SugawaraH.M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods 1(2) 130149. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McDonaldR.P. & HoM.H. (2002). Principles and practice in reporting structural equation analyses. Psychological Methods 7(1) 6482. PubMed ID: 11928891 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MuthénL.K. & MuthénB.O. (1998–2015). Mplus user’s guide (7th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

  • MyersN.D.ChaseM.A.BeauchampM.R. & JacksonB. (2010). Athletes’ perceptions of Coaching Competency Scale II – High school teams. Educational and Psychological Measurement 70(3) 477494. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2014). NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rates Report. 1981–82–2013–14. Indianapolis, IN.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ÖhmanE.AlinaghizadehH.KailaP.HultH.NilssonG.H. & SalminenH. (2016). Adaptation and validation of the instrument clinical learning environment and supervision for medical students in primary health care. BioMed Central Medical Education 16(1) 18. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobitschekC. & KeyesC.L.M. (2009). Keyes’s model of mental health with personal growth initiative as a parsimonious predictor. Journal of Counseling Psychology 56(2) 321329. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RyanR.M. & DeciE.L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology 52141166. PubMed ID: 11148302 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RyffC. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 5710691081. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SatorraA. & BentlerP.M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye & C.C. Clogg (Eds.) Latent variable analysis: Applications for developmental research (pp. 399419). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SaxL.J.GilmartinS.K. & BryantA.N. (2003). Assessing response rates and nonresponse bias in web and paper surveys. Research in Higher Education 44(4) 409432. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShapiroS.S. & WilkM.B. (1965). An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52(3–4) 591611. doi:

  • SmithA.NtoumanisN. & DudaJ. (2010). An investigation of coach behaviors, goal motives, and implementations as predictors of well-being in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 221733. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SteigerJ.H. (1990). Structural model evaluation and modification: An internal estimation approach. Multivariate Behavioral Research 21309331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TsaiC.BaylissM.S. & WareJ.E. (1997). SF-36 health survey annotated bibliography: Second edition (1988–1996). Boston, MA: Health Assessment Lab, New England Medical Center.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TuckerL.R. & LewisC. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika 38110. doi:

  • UnderwoodD.KimH. & MatierM. (2000). To mail or to web: Comparisons of survey response rates and respondent characteristics. Paper presented at the 40th Annual Forum of the Association for Institutional ResearchCincinnati, OHMay 21–24, 2000.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van RensburgC.J.SurujlalJ. & DhurupM. (2011). Exploring wellness practices and barriers: A qualitative study of university student-athletes. African Journal for Physical Health Education Recreation & Dance 17(2) 248265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VincentW.J. (1999). Statistics in kinesiology (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • WareJ.E.SnowK.K.KosinskiM. & GandekB. (1993). SF-36 health survey manual and interpretation guide. Boston, MA: New England Medical Center, The Health Institute, 1993.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 84 84 29
Full Text Views 13 13 3
PDF Downloads 6 6 2
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By