Perfectionism and Self-Perception Profile Comparisons on Burnout and Life Satisfaction in Aesthetic Performers

in Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology
View More View Less
  • 1 East Carolina University
  • 2 The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $59.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $79.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $113.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $150.00

This study evaluated the relationship of perfectionism and self-perceptions with burnout and life satisfaction in aesthetic performers (N = 254) recruited in Sweden. Cluster analysis revealed four groups: perfectionistic with maladaptive self-perceptions, perfectionistic (parent-driven) with maladaptive self-perceptions, achievement-oriented with adaptive self-perceptions, and nonperfectionistic with adaptive self-perceptions. Performers in both maladaptive clusters reported characteristics suggesting they were perfectionistic compared to their peers. They also reported relatively high contingent self-worth and low basic self-esteem. In contrast, those in the nonperfectionistic with adaptive self-perceptions cluster scored relatively low on perfectionism and reported relatively high basic self-esteem and low contingent self-worth. The performers in the achievement-oriented with adaptive self-perceptions cluster reported average scores across most variables, moderately high personal standards, and higher basic self-esteem compared with contingent self-worth. Overall, performers in both maladaptive clusters reported the highest burnout and lowest life satisfaction. Study findings underscore the importance of perfectionism and self-perceptions when considering burnout and life satisfaction.

Raedeke is with the Department of Kinesiology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA. Blom and Kenttä are with The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.

Raedeke (raedeket@ecu.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Albertsen, K., Rugulies, R., Garde, A.H., & Burr, H. (2010). The effect of the work environment and performance-based self-esteem on cognitive stress symptoms among Danish knowledge workers. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 38(3, Suppl.), 8189. PubMed ID: 21172774 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Blom, V. (2012). Contingent self-esteem, stressors and burnout in working women and men. WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation, 43(2), 123131. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, T.A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

  • Burns, D. (1980, November). The perfectionist’s script for self-defeat. Psychology Today, 3451.

  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • Cumming, J., & Duda, J.L. (2012). Profiles of perfectionism, body-related concerns, and indicators of psychological health in vocational dance students: An investigation of the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(6), 729738. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 7175. PubMed ID: 16367493 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, J.G.H., Craft, J.M., Dunn, J., & Gotwals, J.K. (2011). Comparing a domain-specific and global measure of perfectionism in competitive female figure skaters. Journal of Sport Behavior, 34(1), 2546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Enns, M.W., & Cox, B.J. (2002). The nature and assessment of perfectionism: a critical analysis. In G.L. Flett& P.L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 3363). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flett, G.L., Besser, A., Davis, R.A., & Hewitt, P.L. (2003). Dimensions of perfectionism, unconditional self-acceptance, and depression. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 21(2), 119138. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flett, G.L., & Hewitt, P.L. (2002). Perfectionism and maladjustment: An overview of theoretical, definitional, and treatment issues. In G.L. Flett& P.L. Hewitt (Eds.), Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 531). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frost, R.O., Marten, P., Lahart, C., & Rosenblate, R. (1990). The dimensions of perfectionism. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14(5), 449468. doi:

  • Gaudreau, P. (2019). On the distinction between personal standards perfectionism and excellencism: A theory elaboration and research agenda. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 14(4), 197215. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaudreau, P., Franche, V., & Kljajic, K. (2018). The 2 X 2 model of perfectionism: Assumptions, trends, and potential developments. In J. Stoeber (Ed.), The psychology of perfectionism: Theory, research, applications (pp. 4467). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaudreau, P., & Thompson, A. (2010). Testing a 2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(5), 532537. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gotwals, J.K. (2011). Perfectionism and burnout within intercollegiate sport: A person-oriented approach. The Sport Psychologist, 25(4), 489510. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gotwals, J.K., Dunn, J.G.H., & Wayment, H.A. (2003). An examination of perfectionism and self-esteem in intercollegiate athletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1738.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gustafsson, H., DeFreese, J.D., & Madigan, D.J. (2017). Athlete burnout: Review and recommendations. Current Opinion in Psychology, 16, 109113. PubMed ID: 28813331 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hair, J.H., Jr., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., & Black, W.C. (2005). Multivariate data analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

  • Hall, H.K., & Hill, A.P. (2012). Perfectionism, dysfunctional achievement striving and burnout in aspiring athletes: The motivational implications for performing artists. Theatre, Dance and Performance Training, 3(2) 216228. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hall, H.K., Hill, A.P., & Appleton, P.R. (2012). Perfectionism: A foundation for sporting excellence or an uneasy pathway toward purgatory? In G.C. Roberts& D. Treasure (Eds.), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (3rd ed., pp. 129168). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hallsten, L., Josephson, M., & Torgén, M. (2005). Performance-based self-esteem: A driving force in burnout processes and its assessment. Stockholm, Sweden: Arbetslivsinstitutet. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2077/4355

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, A.P., & Curran, T. (2016). Multidimensional perfectionism and burnout: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20(3), 269288. PubMed ID: 26231736 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, A.P., Hall, H.K., & Appleton, P.R. (2011). The relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and contingencies of self-worth. Personality and Individual differences, 50(2), 238242. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hultell, D., & Gustavsson, J.P. (2008). A psychometric evaluation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale in a Swedish nationwide sample of university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 10701079. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnson, M., & Blom, V. (2007). Development and validation of two measures of contingent self-esteem. Individual Differences Research, 5(4), 300328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenny, D., Kaniskan, B., & McCoach, D.B. (2015).The performance of RMSEA in models with small degrees of freedom. Sociological Research Methods, 44(3), 486507. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kim, L.E., Chen, L., MacCann, C., Karlov, L., & Kleitman, S. (2015). Evidence for three factors of perfectionism: Perfectionistic strivings, order, and perfectionistic concerns. Personality and Individual Differences, 84, 1622. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krasnow, D., Mainwaring, L., & Kerr, G. (1999). Injury, stress and perfectionism in young dancers and gymnasts. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 3(2), 5158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lainas, H., & Cho, S. (2017). The relationship between athlete burnout and perfectionism: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, 29(2), 225232. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lundqvist, C., & Kenttä, G. (2007). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Basic and Earning Self-Esteem Scale (BESES). Proceedings of the 12th European Congress of Sport Psychology (FEPSAC), Halkidiki, Greece.

    • Export Citation
  • Madigan, D.J., Gustafsson, H., Smith, A., Raedeke, T., & Hill, A.P. (2019). The BASES expert statement on burnout in sport. The Sport and Exercise Scientist, 61, 67.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mann, M., Hosman, C.M.H., Schaalma, H.P., & DeVries, N.K. (2004). Self-esteem in a broad-spectrum approach for mental health promotion. Health Education Research, 19(4), 357372. PubMed ID: 15199011 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nordin-Bates, S.M., Cumming, J., Aways, D., & Sharp, L. (2011). Imagining yourself dancing to perfection? Correlates of perfectionism among ballet and contemporary dancers. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5(1), 5876. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nordin-Bates, S.M., Raedeke, T.D., & Madigan, D.J. (2017). Perfectionism, burnout, and motivation in dance: A replication and test of the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 21(3), 115122. PubMed ID: 28871903 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pacewicz, C.E., Gotwals, J.K., & Blanton, J.E. (2018). Perfectionism, coping, and burnout among intercollegiate varsity athletes: A person-oriented investigation of group differences and mediation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 35, 207217. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raedeke, T.D., & Smith, A.L. (2001). Development and preliminary validation of an athlete burnout measure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 23(4), 281306. PubMed ID: 28682196 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raedeke, T.D., & Smith, A.L. (2009). The athlete burnout questionnaire manual. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.

  • Raedeke, T.D., Smith, A.L., Kenttä, G., Arce, C., & de Francisco, C. (2014). Burnout in sport: From theory to intervention. In A.R. Gomes, R. Resende, & A. Albuquerque (Eds.), Positive human functioning from a multidimensional perspective: Promoting stress adaptation (pp. 113142). New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Hauppauge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rudman, A., & Gustavsson, J.P. (2011). Early-career burnout among new graduate nurses: A prospective observational study of intra-individual change trajectories. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48(3), 292306. PubMed ID: 20696427 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saboonchi, F., & Lundh, LG. (1997). Perfectionism, self-consciousness and anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 22(6), 921928. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schöne, C., Tandler, S.S., & Stiensmeier-Pelster, J. (2015). Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: Academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1573. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shafran, R., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C.G. (2002). Clinical perfectionism: A cognitive-behavioural analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(7), 773791. PubMed ID: 12074372 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stöber, J. (1998). The frost multidimensional perfectionism scale revisited: More perfect with four (instead of six) dimensions. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(4), 481491. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stoeber, J., & Madigan, D.J. (2016). Measuring perfectionism in sport, dance, and exercise. In A.P. Hill (Ed.), The psychology of perfectionism in sport, dance and exercise (pp. 150173). New York, NY: Routledge.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stoeber, J., & Otto, K. (2006). Positive conceptions of perfectionism: Approaches, evidence, challenges. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(4), 295319. PubMed ID: 17201590 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stoeber, J., & Stoeber, F.S. (2009). Domains of perfectionism: Prevalence and relationships with perfectionism, gender, age, and satisfaction with life. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(4), 530535. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 282 282 34
Full Text Views 13 13 1
PDF Downloads 7 7 1