Mindful Engagement Mediates the Relationship Between Motivational Climate Perceptions and Coachability for Male High School Athletes

in Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology
View More View Less
  • 1 Fort Lewis College
  • | 2 University of Kansas
  • | 3 Pennsylvania State University
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $60.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $81.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $115.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $153.00

The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating role of mindful engagement in the relationship between male high school athletes’ motivational climate perceptions on their teams (i.e., caring, task-, and ego-involving climate) to athlete coachability. Athletes (N = 164, M age = 15.58 years) from multiple sports completed measures assessing mindful engagement in sport (Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale—Revised), Caring Climate Scale, task- and ego-involving climate perceptions (Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire), and coachability (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory). Initial bivariate correlations linked mindful engagement and coachability positively with perceptions of a caring and task-involving climate and negatively with ego-involving climate perceptions. Structural equation modeling analyses then revealed mindful engagement mediated the relationship between climate and coachability. Encouraging coaches and players to foster a caring/task-involving climate might assist in enhancing athletes’ mindful engagement in sport, which may positively influence the degree to which they are coachable.

Iwasaki is with the Department of Health and Human Performance, Fort Lewis College, Durango, CO, USA. Fry is with the Health, Sport & Exercise Science Department, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. Hogue is with the Kinesiology Program, Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg, PA, USA.

Iwasaki (siwasaki@fortlewis.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Aherne, C., Moran, A.P., & Lonsdale, C. (2011). The effect of mindfulness training on athletes’ flow: An initial investigation. Sport Psychologist, 25(2), 177189. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indices in structural equation models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 238246. PubMed ID: 2320703 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Birrer, D., Röthlin, P., & Morgan, G. (2012). Mindfulness to enhance athletic performance: Theoretical considerations and possible impact mechanisms. Mindfulness, 3(3), 235246. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boyce, B.A., Gano-Overway, L.A., & Campbell, A.L. (2009). Perceived motivational climate’s influence on goal orientations, perceived competence, and practice strategies across the athletic season. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 21(4), 381394. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Braithwaite, R., Spray, C.M., & Warburton, V.E. (2011). Motivational climate interventions in physical education: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(6), 628638. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, K.W., & Ryan, R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822848. PubMed ID: 12703651 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, T.C., Fry, M.D., & Moore, E.W.G. (2017). A motivational climate intervention and exercise-related outcomes: A longitudinal perspective. Motivation Science, 3(4), 337353. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cote, T., Baltzell, A., & Diehl, R. (2019). A qualitative exploration of division I tennis players completing the mindfulness meditation training for sport 2.0 Program. The Sport Psychologist, 33(3), 203212. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Danish, S.J., Taylor, T.E., & Fazio, R.J. (2003). Enhancing adolescent development through sports and leisure. In G.R. Adams & M.D. Berznsley (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of adolescence (pp. 92108). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Duda, J.L. (2001). Achievement goal research in sport: Pushing the boundaries and clarifying some misunderstandings. In G.C. Roberts (Ed.), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 129182). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Enders, C.K., & Tofghi, D. (2008). The impact of misspecifying class-specific residual variances in growth mixture models. Structural Equation Modeling, 15(1), 7595. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J.-P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177190. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, M.D. (2000a). A developmental analysis of children’s and adolescents’ understanding of luck and ability in the physical domain. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 22(2), 145166. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, M.D. (2000b). A developmental examination of children’s understanding of task difficulty in the physical domain. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 12(2), 180202. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, M.D., & Duda, J.L. (1997). A developmental examination of children’s understanding of effort and ability in the physical and academic domains. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 68(4), 331344. PubMed ID: 9421845 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, M.D., & Gano-Overway, L.A. (2010). Exploring the contribution of the caring climate to the youth sport experience. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22(3), 294304. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, M.D., & Hogue, C.M. (2018). Psychological considerations for children and adolescents in sport and performance. In O. Braddick (Ed.), Oxford research encyclopedia of psychology (pp. 127).  Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, M.D., Hogue, C.M., Iwasaki, S., & Solomon, G.B. (2021). The relationship between the perceived motivational climate in elite collegiate sport and athlete psychological coping skills. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. Advance online publication. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fry, M.D., & Moore, E.W.G. (2019). Motivation in sport: Theory and application. In APA handbook of sport and exercise psychology, volume 1: Sport psychology (pp. 273299). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gano-Overway, L.A., & Ewing, M.E. (2004). A longitudinal perspective of the relationship between perceived motivational climate, goal orientations, and strategy use. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 75(3), 315325. PubMed ID: 15487294 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gano-Overway, L.A., Magyar, T.M., Mi-Sook, K., Newton, M., Fry, M.D., & Guivernau, M.R. (2009). Influence of caring youth sport contexts on efficacy-related beliefs and social behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 45(2), 329340. PubMed ID: 19271822 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, F.L., & Moore, Z.E. (2004). A mindfulness-acceptance-commitment-based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behavior Therapy, 35(4), 707723. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gould, D., Flett, R., & Lauer, L. (2012). The relationship between psychosocial developmental and the sports climate experienced by underserved youth. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(1), 8087. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harwood, C.G., Keegan, R.J., Smith, J.M.J., & Raine, A.S. (2015). A systematic review of the intrapersonal correlates of motivational climate perceptions in sport and physical activity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 18(1), 925. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogue, C.M. (2020). Achievement goal theory-based psychological skills training session buffers youth athletes’ psychophysiological responses to performance stress. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 51(1), 110. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogue, C.M., Fry, M.D., & Fry, A.C. (2017). The differential impact of motivational climate on adolescents’ psychological and physiological stress responses. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 30(1), 118127. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hogue, C.M., Fry, M.D., Fry, A.C., & Pressman, S.D. (2013). The Influence of a motivational climate intervention on participants’ salivary cortisol and psychological responses. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 35(1), 8597. PubMed ID: 23404882 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hu, L.T., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 155. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iwasaki, S., & Fry, M.D. (2013). The efforts of sport psychology professionals to assist sport administrators in evaluating youth sport programs. Sport Psychologist, 27(4), 360371. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Iwasaki, S., & Fry, M.D. (2016). Female adolescent soccer players’ perceived motivational climate, goal orientations, and mindful engagement. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 27(1), 222231. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 144156. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaufman, K.A., Glass, C.R., & Arnkoff, D.B. (2009). Evaluation of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3(4), 334356. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larson, R.W., Hansen, D.M., & Moneta, G. (2006). Differing profiles of developmental experiences across types of organized youth activities. Developmental Psychology, 42(5), 849863. PubMed ID: 16953691 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Little, T.D. (2013). Longitudinal structural equation modeling. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

  • Little, T.D., Cunningham, W.A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K.F. (2002). To parcel or not to parcel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 151173. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Little, T.D., Rhemtulla, M., Gibson, K., & Schoemann, A.M. (2013). Why the items versus parcels controversy needn’t be one. Psychological Methods, 18(3), 285300. PubMed ID: 23834418 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacKinnon, D.P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

  • MacKinnon, D.P., Lockwood, C.M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99128. PubMed ID: 20157642 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marsh, H.W., Lüdtke, O., Nagengast, B., Morin, A.J.S., & Von Davier, M. (2013). Why item parcels are (almost) never appropriate: Two wrongs do not make a right—Camouflaging misspecification with item parcels in CFA models. Psychological Methods, 18(3), 257284. PubMed ID: 23834417 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Matsunaga, M. (2008). Item parceling in structural equation modeling: A primer. Communication Methods & Measures, 2(4), 260293. doi:

  • McCarthy, J.J. (2011). Exploring the relationship between goal achievement orientation and mindfulness in collegiate athletics. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5(1), 4457. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mills, A., Butt, J., Maynard, I., & Harwood, C. (2012). Identifying factors perceived to influence the development of elite youth football academy players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(15), 15931604. PubMed ID: 22888797 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moore, E.W.G., & Fry, M.D. (2014). Psychometric support for the ownership in exercise and empowerment in exercise scales. Measurement in Physical Education & Exercise Science, 18(2), 135151. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newton, M., Fry, M., Watson, D., Gano-Overway, L., Kim, M.S., Magyar, M., & Guivernau, M. (2007). Psychometric properties of the caring climate scale in a physical activity setting. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 16(1), 6784.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nicholls, J.G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91(3), 328346. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nicholls, J.G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Nordin-Bates, S.M., Quested, E., Walker, I.J., & Redding, E. (2012). Climate change in the dance studio; findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 1(1), 316. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Orlick, T. (2016). In pursuit of excellence: How to win in sport and life through mental training (5th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Positive Coaching Alliance. (December 15, 2015). Doc & Austin Rivers: Inside a father-son/coach-player relationship. [Video] YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S4uWbQMmP7A

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roberts, G.C. (2012). Motivation in sport and exercise from an achievement goal theory perspective: After 30 years, where are we? In G. Roberts & D. Treasure (Eds.), Advances in motivation in sport and exercise (3rd ed., pp. 558). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seifriz, J.J., Duda, J.L., & Likang, C. (1992). The relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and beliefs about success in basketball. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 14(4), 375391. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, R.E., & Christensen, D.S. (1995). Psychological skills as predictors of performance and survival in professional baseball. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17(4), 399415. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, R.E., Smoll, F.L., & Cumming, S.P. (2007). Effects of a motivational climate intervention for coaches on young athletes’ sport performance anxiety. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29(1), 3959. PubMed ID: 17556775 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, R.E., Smoll, F.L., Schutz, R.W., & Ptacek, J.T. (1995). Development and validation of a multidimensional measure of sport-specific psychological skills: The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17(4), 379398. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steiger, J.H., & Lind, J.M. (1980). Statistically based tests for the number of common factors. Iowa City, IA: Psychometric Society.

  • Thompson, R.W., Kaufman, K.A., De Petrillo, L.A., Glass, C.R., & Arnkoff, D.B. (2011). One year follow-up of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE) with archers, golfers, and runners. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5(2), 99116. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tofghi, D., & Enders, C.K. (2007). Identifying the correct number of classes in mixture models. In G.R. Hancock& K.M. Samulelsen (Eds.), Advances in latent variable mixture models. Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tucker, L.R., & Lewic, C. (1973). A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika, 38(1), 110. doi:

  • Walling, M.D., Duda, J.L., & Chi, L. (1993). The perceived motivational climate in sport questionnaire: Construct and predictive validity. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15(2), 172183. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 112 112 64
Full Text Views 6 6 6
PDF Downloads 6 6 6