Comparing National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II Athletes’ Perceptions of Social Support Following Injury, Illness, and Other Identified Stressors

in Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology

Click name to view affiliation

Martha J. AndersonDepartment of Sports Medicine, Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, Kutztown, PA, USA

Search for other papers by Martha J. Anderson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Yvette IngramDepartment of Health Sciences, Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania, Lock Haven, PA, USA

Search for other papers by Yvette Ingram in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Linda MeyerDepartment of Health Science and Exercise Leadership, California University of Pennsylvania, California, PA, USA

Search for other papers by Linda Meyer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Thomas WestDepartment of Health Science and Exercise Leadership, California University of Pennsylvania, California, PA, USA

Search for other papers by Thomas West in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Ellen WestDepartment of Health Science and Exercise Leadership, California University of Pennsylvania, California, PA, USA

Search for other papers by Ellen West in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Collegiate athletes have demonstrated a need for social support to help cope with their daily responsibilities. The purpose of this research was to explore National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes’ perception of social support from friends, teammates, family, coaches, significant others, and athletic trainers following injury, illness, or other identified life stressors. There were 546 participants who completed a five-part survey using the University Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Athletic Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Perceived Stress Scale, and a demographic section. Of the participants, 352 (64.5%) stated that they experienced moderate stress levels, and all participants indicated experiencing an identified life stressor within the last 12 months. The results indicated statistically significant differences when comparing providers of social support: females preferred the support of friends, significant others, and athletic trainers, and freshmen and sophomores perceived more social support from friends than did juniors and seniors.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Acharya, L., Jin, L., & Collins, W. (2018). College life is stressful today–Emerging stressors and depressive symptoms in college students. Journal of American College Health, 66(7), 655664. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2018.1451869

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, M.J., Meyer, L., Ingram, Y., West, E., & West, T. (2021). Comparing NCAA division II athletes’ perceptions of social support following injury, illness, and other identified stressors .https://www.proquest.com/docview/2524380430?pqorigsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baugh, C.M., Kroshus, E., Lanser, B.L., Lindley, T.R., & Meehan, W.P. (2020). Sports medicine staffing across national collegiate athletic association division I, II, and III schools: Evidence for the medical model. Journal of Athletic Training, 55(6), 573579. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-0463-19

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bulo, J.G., & Sanchez, M.G. (2014). Sources of stress among college students. CVCITC Research Journal, 1(1), 1625.

  • Christopher, S., Tadlock, B.A., Veroneau, B.J., Harnish, C., Perera, N.K., Knab, A.M., & Bullock, G.S. (2020). Epidemiological profile of pain and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug use in collegiate athletes in the United States. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 21(1), 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03581-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clement, D., Arvinen-Barrow, M., & Fetty, T. (2015). Psychosocial responses during different phases of sport-injury rehabilitation: A qualitative study. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(1), 95104. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.52

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clement, D., & Shannon, V.R. (2011). Injured athletes’ perceptions about social support. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 20(4), 457470. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.20.4.457

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386396. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136404

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Covassin, T., Crutcher, B., Bleecker, A., Heiden, E.O., Dailey, A., & Yang, J. (2014). Postinjury anxiety and social support among collegiate athletes: A comparison between orthopaedic injuries and concussions. Journal of Athletic Training, 49(4), 462468. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6059-49.2.03

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dambi, J.M., Corten, L., Chiwaridzo, M., Jack, H., Mlambo, T., & Jelsma, J. (2018). A systematic review of the psychometric properties of the cross-cultural translations and adaptations of the Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale (MSPSS). Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 16(1), 8099. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-018-0912-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeFreese, J.D., & Smith, A.L. (2014). Athlete social support, negative social interactions, and psychological health across a competitive sport season. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 36(6), 619630. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2014-0040

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans, L., & Hardy, L. (1995). Sport injury and grief responses: A review. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17(3), 227245. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.17.3.227

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Freeman, P. (2020). Social support in sport. In G. Tennenbaum & R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (vol. 1, 4th ed.). John Wiley and Sons.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gerlach, J.M. (2018). Transitioning from high school to college athletics: Recommendations for school counselors working with athletes. Journal of Professional Counseling: Practice, Theory and Research, 45(1), 4558. https://doi.org/10.1080/15566382.2019.1569319

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodman, A.D., Twomey-Kozak, J., DeFroda, S.F., & Owens, B.D. (2018). Epidemiology of shoulder and elbow injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association wrestlers, 2009–2010 through 2013–2014. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 46(3), 361366. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00913847.2018.1425596https://

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hagiwara, G., Iwatsuki, T., Isogai, H., VanRaalte, J.L., & Brewer, B.W. (2017). Relationships among sports helplessness, depression, and social support in American college student athletes. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(2), 753757. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2017.02114

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kontos, A., Elbin, R.J., Newcomer Appaneal, R., Covassin, T., & Collins, M. (2013). A comparison of coping responses among high school and college athletes with concussion, orthopedic injuries, and healthy controls. Research in Sports Medicine, 21(4), 367379535. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438627.2013.825801

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Layberger, T. (2019). Chronic illness just one more thing to manage for some athletes. Global Sport Matter. Global Sport Institute at ASU.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madrigal, L., Robbins, J., Gill, D.L., & Wurst, K. (2015). A pilot study investigating the reasons for playing through pain and injury: Emerging themes in men’s and women’s collegiate rugby. The Sport Psychologist, 29(4), 310318. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2014-0139

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Madrigal, L., & Robbins, J.E. (2020). Student-athlete stress: An examination in United States Collegiate Athletics. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 117. https://doi.org/10.1080/19357397.2020.1774261

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malinauskas, D.R., & Malinauskiene, V. (2018). The mediation effect of perceived social support and perceived stress on the relationship between emotional intelligence and psychological wellbeing in male athletes. Journal of Human Kinetics, 65, 291. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2018-0017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malinauskas, R. (2010). The associations among social support, stress, and life satisfaction as perceived by injured college athletes. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 38(6), 741752. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2010.38.6.741

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martikainen, P., Bartley, M., & Lahelma, E. (2002). Psychosocial determinants of health in social epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31(6), 10911093. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/31.6.1091

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meeuwisse, W.H., Selmer, R., & Hagel, B.E. (2003). Rates and risk of injury during intercollegiate basketball. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(3), 379385. https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465030310030901

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, I., Evans, L., Rees, T., & Hardy, L. (2014). Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: Effects on psychological responses of injured athletes. British Journal of Health Psychology, 19(3), 486508. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12046

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2016). NCAA GOALS study of the student athlete experience initial summary of findings .https://www.ncaa.org/sites/default/files/GOALS_2015_summary_jan2016_final_20160627.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2019). Inter-association consensus document: Understanding and supporting student-athlete mental wellness. Mental health best practices. https://ncaaorg.s3.amazonaws.com/ssi/mental/SSI_MentalHealthBestPractices.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2020). NCAA goals division II slides from convention. https://ncaaorg.s3.amazonaws.com/research/goals/2020D2RES_GOALS2020con.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pines, A., Aronson, E., & Kafry, D. (1981). Burnout: From tedium to personal growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(1), 160169.

  • Salim, J., Wadey, R., & Diss, C. (2016). Examining hardiness, coping and stress-related growth following sport injury. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 28(2), 154169. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2015.1086448

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schwellnus, M., Soligard, T., Alonso, J., Bahr, R., Clarsen, B., Dijkstra, H., Gabett, T., Gleeson, M., Hutchinson, M., VanRensburg, C., Meeeusen, R., Orchard, J., Pluim, M., Raferty, M., Budgett, R., & Engebresten, L. (2016). How much is too much? (Part 2) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of illness. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50, 10431052. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096572

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shumaker, S.A., & Brownell, A. (1984). Toward a theory of social support: Closing conceptual gaps. Journal of Social Issues, 40(4), 1136. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1984.tb01105.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stallman, H.M., & Hurst, C.P. (2016). The University Stress Scale: Measuring domains and extent of stress in university students. Australian Psychology, 51, 128134. https://doi.org/10.1111/ap.12127

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stevens, C., Schneider, E., Bederman-Miller, P., & Arcangelo, K. (2019). Exploring the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic stress among students at a small, private college. Contemporary Issues in Education Research (CIER), 12(4), 93102. https://doi.org/10.19030/cier.v12i4.10322

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sullivan, M., Moore, M., Blom, L.C., & Slater, G. (2020). Relationship between social support and depressive symptoms in collegiate student athletes. Journal for the Study of Sports and Athletes in Education, 14(3), 192209. https://doi.org/10.1080/19357397.2020.1768034

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walsh, N.P. (2018). Recommendations to maintain immune health in athletes. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(6), 820883. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2018.1449895

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Watson, J.C. (2016). The effect of athletic identity and locus of control on the stress perceptions of community college student-athletes. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 40(9), 729738. https://doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2015.1072595

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weinberg, R.S., & Gould, D. (2019). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (7th ed.). Human Kinetics.

  • Wiese-Bjornstal, D.M., Smith, A.M., Shaffer, S.M., & Morrey, M.A. (1998). An integrated model of response to sport injury: Psychological and sociological dynamics. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 10(1), 4669. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209808406377

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, G., & Pritchard, M. (2005). Comparing sources of stress in college student athletes and non-Athletes. Athletic insight: The online. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7(1), 18. http://amyburris.atspace.com/StressPDF.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zimet, G.D., Dahlem, N.W., Zimet, S.G., & Farley, G.K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 3041. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 480 480 123
Full Text Views 10 10 3
PDF Downloads 13 13 4