The Well-Being of Elite Volleyball Athletes: A Scoping Review of Methods Using Wellness Questionnaires

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André Rebelo CIDEFES, Centro de Investigação em Desporto, Educação Física e Exercício e Saúde, Universidade Lusófona, Lisboa, Portugal
COD, Center of Sports Optimization, Sporting Clube de Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal

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João R. Pereira CIDEFES, Centro de Investigação em Desporto, Educação Física e Exercício e Saúde, Universidade Lusófona, Lisboa, Portugal
COD, Center of Sports Optimization, Sporting Clube de Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal

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Diogo V. Martinho University of Coimbra, Research Unit for Sport and Physical Activity, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, Coimbra, Portugal
Laboratory of Robotics and Engineering Systems (LARSYS), Interactive Technologies Institute (ITI), Funchal, Portugal

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João Valente-dos-Santos CIDEFES, Centro de Investigação em Desporto, Educação Física e Exercício e Saúde, Universidade Lusófona, Lisboa, Portugal
COD, Center of Sports Optimization, Sporting Clube de Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal

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The purpose of the current review was to systematically and critically evaluate the subjective methods used to evaluate well-being of elite volleyball athletes. According to the results of this scoping review, there is a lack of comprehensive well-being assessment within the volleyball literature as the questionnaires used with these athletes primarily focus on stress, recovery, mood states, and anxiety. While general well-being measures can provide valuable insights, there is a need for measures that consider the unique experiences, challenges, and contexts of athletes. Also, there is an inconsistent definition of well-being in the volleyball literature. This can lead to a piecemeal approach, where different aspects of well-being are assessed in isolation, without a clear understanding of how they fit together. Therefore, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of volleyball athletes’ well-being, it is important to incorporate measures that assess subjective, psychological, and social well-being. In conclusion, while current assessment tools provide important insights into volleyball athletes’ well-being, there is a clear need for more holistic and sport-specific measures. By expanding an understanding and assessment of well-being, there can be better support for athletes’ overall health, satisfaction, and performance.

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