Does Sedentary Behavior Predict Motor Competence in Young Children?

Click name to view affiliation

Daniel das Virgens Chagas Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Search for other papers by Daniel das Virgens Chagas in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
*
,
Kylie Hesketh Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Search for other papers by Kylie Hesketh in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2702-7110
,
Katherine Downing Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Search for other papers by Katherine Downing in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6552-8506
,
Mohammadreza Mohebbi Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Search for other papers by Mohammadreza Mohebbi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9713-7211
, and
Lisa M. Barnett Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
School of Health and Social Development, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Search for other papers by Lisa M. Barnett in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9731-625X
Restricted access

Background: Understanding how or whether sedentary behavior affects motor competence in young children is important considering that children spend a lot of time sedentary. The aim of this study was to examine whether sedentary behavior predicts motor competence in young children. Methods: A longitudinal study with a total of 372 children aged 3.5 years at baseline and 5 years at follow-up was conducted. Objectively measured activity patterns (i.e., using accelerometers) were conducted in a subsample with 188 children. Sedentary behavior was assessed both objectively and subjectively (parent-reported screen time). Locomotor and object control skill scores were determined using the Test of Gross Motor Development—Second Edition. A multivariable analysis was executed adjusting for potential confounders (such as age, sex, time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, monitor wear time, body mass index z scores, and maternal education). Results: Sedentary behavior at either time point was not significantly associated with either locomotor or object control skills after adjusting for potential confounders. Discussion: Our results did not support the assumption that sedentary behavior affects motor competence in young children. Regardless, given the lack of consistency in the evidence base, we recommend to parents, educators, and health professionals that sedentary activities should be kept within government recommendations due to potential negative effects on child development.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Adank, A., Van Kann, D., Hoeboer, J.J., de Vries, S., Kremers, S., & Vos, S. (2018). Investigating motor competence in association with sedentary behavior and physical activity in 7- to 11-year-old children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(11), Article 2470. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112470

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ahnert, J., Schneider, W., & Bös, K. (2009). Developmental changes and individual stability of motor abilities from the preschool period to young adulthood. In W. Schneider & M. Bullock (Eds.), Human development from early childhood to early adulthood4579. Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Hinkley, T., Hesketh, K., Okely, A.D., & Salmon, J. (2012). Use of electronic games by young children and fundamental movement skills. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 114, 10231034. https://doi.org/10.2466/10.13.PMS.114.3.1023-1034

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Hnatiuk, J.A., Salmon, J., & Hesketh, K.D. (2019). Modifiable factors which predict children’s gross motor competence: A prospective cohort study. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 16(1), Article 129. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-019-0888-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Lai, S.K., Veldman, S.L.C., Hardy, L.L., Cliff, D.P., Morgan, P.J., Zask, A., Lubans, D.R., Shultz, S.P., Ridgers, N.D., Rush, E., Brown, H.L., & Okely, A.D.. (2016). Correlates of gross motor competence in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(11), 16631688. https://doi.org/org/10.1007/s40279-016-0495-z

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Minto, C., Lander, N., & Hardy, L.L. (2014). Interrater reliability assessment using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 17(6), 667670. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2013.09.013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Webster, E.K., Hulteen, R.M., De Meester, A., Valentini, N.C., Lenoir, M., Pesce, C., Getchell, N., Lopes, V.P., Robinson, L.E., Brian, A., & Rodrigues, L.P.. (2022). Through the looking glass: A systematic review of longitudinal evidence, providing new insight for motor competence and health. Sports Medicine, 52(4), 875920. https://doi.org/org/10.1007/s40279-021-01516-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Biddle, S.J., Gorely, T., Marshall, S.J., Murdey, I., & Cameron, N. (2004). Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in youth: Issues and controversies. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 124(1), 2933. https://doi.org/10.1177/146642400312400110

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cadoret, G., Bigras, N., Lemay, L., Lehrer, J., & Lemire, J. (2018). Relationship between screen-time and motor proficiency in children: A longitudinal study. Early Child Development and Care, 188, 231239. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2016.1211123

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cain, K.L., Sallis, J.F., Conway, T.L., Van Dyck, D., & Calhoon, L. (2013). Using accelerometers in youth physical activity studies: A review of methods. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 10(3), 437450. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.10.3.437

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, K., Hesketh, K., Crawford, D., Salmon, J., Ball, K., & McCallum, Z. (2008). The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 8, Article 103. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-8-103

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chagas, D.V., & Batista, L.A. (2019). Interrelationships among motor coordination, body fat, and physical activity in adolescent boys. Motor Control, 23(3), 294303. https://doi.org/10.1123/mc.2018-0010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cliff, D.P., McNeill, J., Vella, S.A., Howard, S.J., Santos, R., Batterham, M., Melhuish, E., Okely, A.D., & de Rosnay, M. (2017). Adherence to 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years and associations with social-cognitive development among Australian preschool children. BMC Public Health, 17(Suppl. 5), Article 857. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4858-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Erlbaum.

  • Dadson, P., Brown, T., & Stagnitti, K. (2020). Relationship between screen-time and hand function, play and sensory processing in children without disabilities aged 4–7 years: A exploratory study. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 67(4), 297308. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1630.12650

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Onis, M., Onyango, A.W., Borghi, E., Siyam, A., Nishida, C., & Siekmann, J. (2007). Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 85(9), 660667. https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.07.043497

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drenowatz, C., & Greier, K. (2019). Cross-sectional and longitudinal association of sports participation, media consumption and motor competence in youth. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 29(6), 854861. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.13400

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evenson, K.R., Catellier, D.J., Gill, K., Ondrak, K.S., & McMurray, R.G. (2008). Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26(14), 15571565. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802334196

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Figueroa, R., & An, R. (2017). Motor skill competence and physical activity in preschoolers: A review. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21(1), 136146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2102-1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fitzpatrick, C., Pagani, L.S., & Barnett, T.A. (2012). Early childhood television viewing predicts explosive leg strength and waist circumference by middle childhood. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9, Article 87. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-9-87

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, M., Skouteris, H., Hardy, L.L., & Halse, C. (2012). The associations between TV viewing, food intake, and BMI. A prospective analysis of data from the longitudinal study of Australian children. Appetite, 59(3), 945948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.09.009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gallahue, D., Ozmun, J., & Goodway, J. (2012). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults (7th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haibach-Beach, P., Reid, G., & Collier, D. (2017). Motor learning and development (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics.

  • Hardy, L.L., Ding, D., Peralta, L.R., Mihrshahi, S., & Merom, D. (2018). Association between sitting, screen time, fitness domains, and fundamental motor skills in children aged 5–16 years: Cross-sectional population study. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 15(12), 933940. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2017-0620

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haywood, K., & Getchell, N. (2014). Life span motor development (6th ed.). Human Kinetics

  • Hesketh, K., Campbell, K., Salmon, J., McNaughton, S.A., McCallum, Z., Cameron A., et al. (2013). The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program follow-up. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 34(1), 145151. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2012.10.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinkley, T., O’Connell, E., Okely, A.D., Crawford, D., Hesketh, K., & Salmon, J. (2012). Assessing volume of accelerometry data for reliability in preschool children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44(12), 24362441. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182661478

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinkley, T., Salmon, J., Okely, A.D., Crawford, D., & Hesketh, K. (2012). Preschoolers’ physical activity, screen time, and compliance with recommendations. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44(3), 458465. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318233763b

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinkley, T., Verbestel, V., Ahrens, W., Lissner, L., Molnár, D., Moreno, L.A., Pigeot, I., Pohlabeln, H., Reisch, L.A., Russo, P., Veidebaum, T., Tornaritis, M., Williams, G., De Henauw, S., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., & IDEFICS Consortium. (2014). Early childhood electronic media use as a predictor of poorer well-being: A prospective cohort study. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(5), 485492. https://doi.org/org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.94

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hnatiuk, J.A., Salmon, J., Hinkley, T., Okely, A.D., & Trost, S. (2014). A review of preschool children’s physical activity and sedentary time using objective measures. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 47(4), 487497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2014.05.042

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lima, R.A., Pfeiffer, K., Larsen, L.R., Bugge, A., Moller, N.C., Anderson, L.B., & Stodden, D.F. (2017). Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 14(6), 440447. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2016-0473

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopes, L., Santos, R., Pereira, B., & Lopes, V.P. (2012). Associations between sedentary behavior and motor coordination in children. American Journal of Human Biology, 24(6), 746752. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22310

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Martins, C.M.L., Clark, C., Ribeiro Bandeira, P.F., Mota, J., & Duncan, M.J. (2020). Association between compliance with the 24-hour movement guidelines and fundamental movement skills in preschoolers: A network perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(15), Article 5443. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155443

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McIntyre, F., Parker, H., Chivers, P., & Hands, B. (2018). Actual competence, rather than perceived competence, is a better predictor of physical activity in children aged 6–9 years. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(13), 14331440. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1390243

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newell, K.M. (1986). Constraints on the development of coordination. In M.G. Wade & H.T.A. Whiting (Eds.), Motor development in children: Aspects of coordination and control341360. Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nilsen, A., Anderssen, S.A., Johannessen, K., Aadland, K.N., Ylvisaaker, E., Loftesnes, J.M., & Aadland, E. (2020). Bi-directional prospective associations between objectively measured physical activity and fundamental motor skills in children: A two-year follow-up. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-019-0902-6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Olafsdottir, S., Berg, C., Eiben, G., Lanfer, A., Reisch, L., Ahrens, W., Kourides, Y., Molnár, D., Moreno, L.A., Siani, A., Veidebaum, T., & Lissner, L. (2014). Young children’s screen activities, sweet drink consumption and anthropometry: Results from a prospective European Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68(2), 223228. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2013.234

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pate, R.R., O’Neill, J.R., & Lobelo, F. (2008). The evolving definition of “sedentary.” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 36(4), 173178. https://doi.org/10.1097/JES.0b013e3181877d1a

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, L.E., Stodden, D.F., Barnett, L.M., Lopes, V.P., Logan, S.W., Rodrigues, L.P., & D’Hondt, E. (2015). Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Medicine, 45(9), 12731284. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-015-0351-6

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Santos, G.D., Guerra, P.H., Milani, S.A., Santos, A., Cattuzzo, M.T., & , A. (2021). Sedentary behavior and motor competence in children and adolescents: A review. Revista de Saúde Pública, 55, Article 57. https://doi.org/10.11606/s1518-8787.2021055002917

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saunders, T.J., & Vallance, J.K. (2017). Screen time and health indicators among children and youth: Current evidence, limitations and future directions. Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, 15(3), 323331. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40258-016-0289-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trost, S.G., Loprinzi, P.D., Moore, R., & Pfeiffer, K.A. (2011). Comparison of accelerometer cut points for predicting activity intensity in youth. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(7), 13601368. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318206476e

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • True, L., Pfeiffer, K.A., Dowda, M., Williams, H.G., Brown, W.H., O’Neill, J.R., & Pate, R.R. (2017). Motor competence and characteristics within the preschool environment. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(8), 751755. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.019

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich, D.A. (2000). Test of gross motor development (2nd ed.). PRO-ED.

  • Van Kann, D.H.H., Koolwijk, P., de Kok, T., Vos, S.B., de Vries, S.I., Mombarg, R., van Aart, I., Savelsbergh, G.J.P., Hoeboer, J.J.M.M., & Remmers, T. (2022). Applying an ecosystem approach to explore modifiable factors related to the risk for low motor competence in young children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 25(11), 890895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2022.08.014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Webster, E.K., Martin, C.K., & Staiano, A.E. (2019). Fundamental motor skills, screen-time, and physical activity in preschoolers. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 8(2), 114121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2018.11.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1521 1036 60
Full Text Views 453 202 0
PDF Downloads 208 33 0