A Single Session of Mindfulness Meditation Expedites Immediate Motor Memory Consolidation to Improve Wakeful Offline Learning

Click name to view affiliation

James O. Brown Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity and Allied Health and Human Performance Unit, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Search for other papers by James O. Brown in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6254-9689
,
Alex Chatburn Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Search for other papers by Alex Chatburn in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3462-7648
,
David L. Wright Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA

Search for other papers by David L. Wright in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3090-5375
, and
Maarten A. Immink Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia
Sport, Health, Physical Activity and Exercise (SHAPE) Research Centre and College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia

Search for other papers by Maarten A. Immink in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4652-0090 *
Restricted access

Posttraining meditation has been shown to promote wakeful memory stabilization of explicit motor sequence information in learners who are experienced meditators. We investigated the effect of single-session mindfulness meditation on wakeful and sleep-dependent forms of implicit motor memory consolidation in meditation naïve adults. Immediately after training with a target implicit motor sequence, participants (N = 20, eight females, 23.9 ± 3.3 years) completed either a 10-min mindfulness meditation (N = 10) or a control listening task before exposure to task interference induced by training with a novel implicit sequence. Target sequence performance was tested following 5-hr wakeful and 15-hr postsleep periods. Bayesian inference was applied to group comparisons of mean reaction time (RT) changes across training, interference, wakeful, and postsleep timepoints. Relative to control conditions, posttraining meditation reduced RT slowing between target sequence training and interference sequence introduction (BF10 [Bayes factors] = 6.61) and supported RT performance gains over the wakeful period (BF10 = 8.34). No group differences in postsleep RT performance were evident (BF10 = 0.38). These findings illustrate that posttraining mindfulness meditation expedites wakeful, but not sleep-dependent, offline learning with implicit motor sequences. Previous meditation experience is not required to obtain wakeful consolidation gains from posttraining mindfulness meditation.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Anderson, M.C., & Levy, B.J. (2011). On the relationship between interference and inhibition in cognition. In A.S. Benjamin (Ed.), Successful remembering and successful forgetting: A festschrift in honor of Robert A. Bjork (pp. 107132). Psychology Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Atkinson, W. (1911). Your mind and how to use it: A manual of practical psychology (vol. 1). Library of Alexandria.

  • Black, D.S., Sussman, S., Johnson, C.A., & Milam, J. (2012). Psychometric assessment of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) among Chinese adolescents. Assessment, 19(1), 4252. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191111415365

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borragán, G., Urbain, C., Schmitz, R., Mary, A., & Peigneux P. (2015). Sleep and memory consolidation: Motor performance and proactive interference effects in sequence learning. Brain and Cognition, 95, 5461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2015.01.011

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brokaw, K., Tishler, W., Manceor, S., Hamilton, K., Gaulden, A., Parr, E., & Wamsley, E.J. (2016). Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 130, 1725. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nlm.2016.01.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, K.W., & Ryan, R.M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822848. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, K.W., West, A.M., Loverich, T.M., & Biegel, G.M. (2011). Assessing adolescent mindfulness: Validation of an adapted mindful attention awareness scale in adolescent normative and psychiatric populations. Psychological Assessment, 23(4), 10231033. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021338

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown, R., & Robertson, E. (2007). Inducing motor skill improvements with a declarative task. Nature Neuroscience, 10(2), 148149. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1836

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Buysse, D.J., Reynolds, C.F., Monk, T.H., Berman, S.R., & Kupfer, D.J. (1989). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193213. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cahn, B.R., & Polich, J. (2006). Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 180211. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.180

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carlson, L.E., & Brown, K.W. (2005). Validation of the mindful attention awareness scale in a cancer population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58(1), 2933. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.04.366

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, R.W., Alday, P.M., Zou-Williams, L., Lushington, K., Schlesewsky, M., Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I., & Immink, M.A. (2020). Focused-attention meditation increases cognitive control during motor sequence performance: Evidence from the N2 cortical evoked potential. Behavioural Brain Research, 384, Article 112536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112536

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, R.W., Immink, M.A., & Lushington, K. (2017). The influence of focused-attention meditation states on the cognitive control of sequence learning. Consciousness and Cognition, 55, 1125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2017.07.004

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chan, R.W., Lushington, K., & Immink, M.A. (2018). States of focused attention and sequential action: A comparison of single session meditation and computerised attention task influences on top-down control during sequence learning. Acta Psychologica, 191, 87100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2018.09.003

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colzato, L., Szapora Ozturk, A., Pannekoek, J., & Hommel, B. (2013). The impact of physical exercise on convergent and divergent thinking. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, Article 824. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2013.00824

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colzato, L.S., & Kibele, A. (2017). How different types of meditation can enhance athletic performance depending on the specific sport skills. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 1(2), 122126. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41465-017-0018-3

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colzato, L.S., Szapora, A., Lippelt, D., & Hommel, B. (2017). Prior meditation practice modulates performance and strategy use in convergent- and divergent-thinking problems. Mindfulness, 8(1), 1016. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0352-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Davidson, R., & Kaszniak, A. (2015). Conceptual and methodological issues in research on mindfulness and meditation. American Psychologist, 70(7), 581592. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0039512

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dayan, E., & Cohen, L. (2011). Neuroplasticity subserving motor skill learning. Neuron, 72(3), 443454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2011.10.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Debas, K., Carrier, J., Orban, P., Barakat, M., Lungu, O., Vandewalle, G., Tahar, A.H., Bellec, P., Karni, A., Ungerleider, L.G., Benali, H., & Doyon, J. (2010). Brain plasticity related to the consolidation of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(41), 1783917844. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1013176107

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Bruin, E.I., Van Der Zwan, J.E., & Bögels, S.M. (2016). A RCT comparing daily mindfulness meditations, biofeedback exercises, and daily physical exercise on attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying in stressed young adults. Mindfulness, 7(5), 11821192. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0561-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diekelmann, S., & Born, J. (2007). One memory, two ways to consolidate? Nature Neuroscience, 10(9), 10851086. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn0907-1085

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dumel, G., Bourassa, M.E., Desjardins, M., Voarino, N., Charlebois-Plante, C., Doyon, J., & De Beaumont, L. (2016). Multisession anodal tDCS protocol improves motor system function in an aging population. Neural Plasticity, 2016, Article 5961362. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5961362

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fischer, S., Hallschmid, M., Elsner, A.L., & Born, J. (2002). Sleep forms memory for finger skills. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(18), 1198711991. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.182178199

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gelman, A., & Rubin, D.B. (1992). Inference from iterative simulation using multiple sequences. Statistical Science, 7(4), 457472. https://doi.org/10.1214/ss/1177011136

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ghilardi, M.F., Moisello, C., Silvestri, G., Ghez, C., & Krakauer, J.W. (2009). Learning of a sequential motor skill comprises explicit and implicit components that consolidate differently. Journal of Neurophysiology, 101(5), 22182229. https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.01138.2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goss-Sampson, M. (2020). Bayesian inference in JASP: A guide for students. JASP. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/CKNXM

  • Hasenkamp, W., Wilson-Mendenhall, C.D., Duncan, E., & Barsalou, L.W. (2012). Mind wandering and attention during focused meditation: A fine-grained temporal analysis of fluctuating cognitive states. Neuroimage, 59, 750760. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hertel, P.T., & Rude, S.S. (1991). Depressive deficits in memory: Focusing attention improves subsequent recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 120(3), 301309. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.120.3.301

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Immink, M.A. (2016). Post-training meditation promotes motor memory consolidation. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, Article 1698. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01698

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Immink, M.A., Colzato, L.S., Stolte, M., & Hommel, B. (2017). Sequence learning enhancement following single-session meditation is dependent on Metacontrol mode and experienced effort. Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, 1(2), 127140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41465-017-0019-2

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JASP Team (2022). JASP (Version 0.16.3) [Computer software]. https://jasp-stats.org/faq/how-do-i-cite-jasp/

  • King, B.R., Hoedlmoser, K., Hirschauer, F., Dolfen, N., & Albouy, G. (2017). Sleeping on the motor engram: The multifaceted nature of sleep-related motor memory consolidation. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 80, 122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.04.026

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korman, M., Doyon, J., Doljansky, J., Carrier, J., Dagan, Y., & Karni, A. (2007). Daytime sleep condenses the time course of motor memory consolidation. Nature Neuroscience, 10(9), 12061213. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1959

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levinson, D., Stoll, E., Kindy, S., Merry, H., & Davidson, R. (2014). A mind you can count on: Validating breath counting as a behavioural measure of mindfulness. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1202. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01202/full

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LimeSurvey GmbH. (2020). LimeSurvey: An open source survey tool. LimeSurvey GmBH. https://www.limesurvey.org

  • Lippelt, D.P., Hommel, B., & Colzato, L.S. (2014). Focused attention, open monitoring and loving kindness meditation: Effects on attention, conflict monitoring, and creativity—A review. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, Article 1083. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01083

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lugassy, D., Herszage, J., Pilo, R., Brosh, T., & Censor, N. (2018). Consolidation of complex motor skill learning: Evidence for a delayed offline process. Sleep, 41(9). https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsy123

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lumma, A.-L., Kok, B.E., & Singer, T. (2015). Is meditation always relaxing? Investigating heart rate, heart rate variability, experienced effort and likeability during training of three types of meditation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 97(1), 3845. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2015.04.017

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Makowski, D., Ben-Shachar, M.S., Chen, S.H.A., & Lüdecke, D. (2019). Indices of effect existence and significance in the Bayesian framework. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article 2767. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02767

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malinowski, P. (2013). Neural mechanisms of attentional control in mindfulness meditation. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7, Article 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2013.00008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McNeish, D. (2016). On using Bayesian methods to address small sample problems. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 23, 750773. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2016.1186549

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mednick, S., Nakayama, K., & Stickgold, R. (2003). Sleep-dependent learning: A nap is as good as a night. Nature Neuroscience, 6(7), 697698. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn1078

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mrazek, M., Franklin, M.S., Phillips, D.T., Baird, B., & Schooler, J.W. (2013). Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering. Psychological Science, 24(5), 776781. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612459659

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naranjo, J.R., & Schmidt, S. (2012). Is it me or not me? Modulation of perceptual-motor awareness and visuomotor performance by mindfulness meditation. BMC Neuroscience, 13(1), Article 88. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-13-88

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nishida, M., & Walker, M.P. (2007). Daytime naps, motor memory consolidation and regionally specific sleep spindles. PLoS One, 2(4), Article e341. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0000341

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nissen, M.J., & Bullemer, P. (1987). Attentional requirements of learning: Evidence from performance measures. Cognitive Psychology, 19(1), 132. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(87)90002-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Norris, C.J., Creem, D., Hendler, R., & Kober, H. (2018). Brief mindfulness meditation improves attention in novices: Evidence from ERPs and moderation by neuroticism. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12, Article 315. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00315

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Osman, A., Lamis, D.A., Bagge, C.L., Freedenthal, S., & Barnes, S.M. (2016). The mindful attention awareness scale: Further examination of dimensionality, reliability, and concurrent validity estimates. Journal of Personality Assessment, 98(2), 189199. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2015.1095761

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reed, J., & Johnson, P. (1994). Assessing implicit learning with indirect tests: Determining what is learned about sequence structure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 20(3), 585594. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.20.3.585

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhee, J., Chen, J., Riechman, S.M., Handa, A., Bhatia, S., & Wright, D.L. (2016). An acute bout of aerobic exercise can protect immediate offline motor sequence gains. Psychological Research, 80(4), 518531. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-015-0682-9

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robertson, E.M. (2007). The serial reaction time task: Implicit motor skill learning? Journal of Neuroscience, 27(38), 1007310075. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.2747-07.2007

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robertson, E.M, Pascual-Leone, A., & Miall, R.C. (2004). Current concepts in procedural consolidation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5(7), 576582. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1426

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robertson, E.M, Pascual-Leone, A., & Press, D.Z. (2004). Awareness modifies the skill-learning benefits of sleep. Current Biology, 14(3), 208212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2004.01.027

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roig, M., Skriver, K., Lundbye-Jensen, J., Kiens, B., & Nielsen, J.B. (2012). A single bout of exercise improves motor memory. PLoS One, 7(9), Article e44594. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044594

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sami, S., Robertson, E.M., & Miall, R.C. (2014). The time course of task-specific memory consolidation effects in resting state networks. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(11), 39823992. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.4341-13.2014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, W., Eschman, A., & Zuccolotto, A. (2020). Psychology Software Tools, Inc. [E-PrimeGo]. Psychology Software Tools Inc.

  • Shadmehr, R., & Brashers-Krug, T. (1997). Functional stages in the formation of human long-term motor memory. Journal of Neuroscience, 17(1), 409419. https://doi.org/10.1523/jneurosci.17-01-00409.1997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Song, S. (2009). Consciousness and the consolidation of motor learning. Behavioural Brain Research, 196(2), 180186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2008.09.034

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sperl, L., & Cañal-Bruland, R. (2020). Reducing proactive interference in motor tasks. Journal of Motor Behavior, 52(3), 372381. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.2019.1635984

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stapleton, P., Dispenza, J., McGill, S., Sabot, D., Peach, M., & Raynor, D. (2020). Large effects of brief meditation intervention on EEG spectra in meditation novices. IBRO Reports, 9, 290301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibror.2020.10.006

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tang, Y.-Y., Hölzel, B.K., & Posner, M.I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(4), 213225. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3916

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Urbain, C., Houyoux, E., Albouy, G., & Peigneux, P. (2014). Consolidation through the looking-glass: Sleep-dependent proactive interference on visuomotor adaptation in children. Journal of Sleep Research, 23(1), 4452. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12082

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Doorn, J., Van Den Bergh, D., Böhm, U., Dablander, F., Derks, K., Draws, T., Etz, A., Evans, N.J., Gronau, Q.F., Haaf, J.M., Hinne, M., Kucharský, Š., Ly, A., Marsman, M., Matzke, D., Gupta, A.R.K.N., Sarafoglou, A., Stefan, A., Voelkel, J.G., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2021). The JASP guidelines for conducting and reporting a Bayesian analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 28(3), 813826. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-020-01798-5

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Veale, J.F. (2014). Edinburgh handedness inventory—Short form: A revised version based on confirmatory factor analysis. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 19(2), 164177. https://doi.org/10.1080/1357650x.2013.783045

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, M.P. (2005). A refined model of sleep and the time course of memory formation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(1), 5164. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0140525x05000026

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, M.P., Brakefield, T., Hobson, A.J., & Stickgold, R. (2003). Dissociable stages of human memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Nature, 425(6958), 616620. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature01930

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, M.P., Brakefield, T., Morgan, A., Hobson, J.A., & Stickgold, R. (2002). Practice with sleep makes perfect. Neuron, 35(1), 205211. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0896-6273(02)00746-8

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walker, M.P., & Stickgold, R. (2004). Sleep-dependent learning and memory consolidation. Neuron, 44(1), 121133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2004.08.031

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wetzels, R., Matzke, D., Lee, M.D., Rouder, J.N., Iverson, G.J., & Wagenmakers, E.-J. (2011). Statistical evidence in experimental psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(3), 291298. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691611406923

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitfield, T., Barnhofer, T., Acabchuk, R., Cohen, A., Lee, M., Schlosser, M., Arenaza-Urquijo, E.M., Böttcher, A., Britton, W., Coll-Padros, N., Collette, F., Chételat, G., Dautricourt, S., Demnitz-King, H., Dumais, T., Klimecki, O., Meiberth, D., Moulinet, I., Müller, T., … Marchant, N.L. (2022). The effect of mindfulness-based programs on cognitive function in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neuropsychology Review, 32(3), 677702. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11065-021-09519-y

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willingham, D.B., & Goedert-Eschmann, K. (1999). The relation between implicit and explicit learning: Evidence for parallel development. Psychological Science, 10(6), 531534. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00201

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1221 652 52
Full Text Views 173 129 3
PDF Downloads 107 44 4