Developmental Progression and Sex Differences in Agility During Continuous Two-Footed Jumping Among Children Aged 4–16 Years

Click name to view affiliation

Ayane Muro Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Women’s University, Nara, Japan

Search for other papers by Ayane Muro in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Nozomi Takatoku Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women’s University, Nara, Japan

Search for other papers by Nozomi Takatoku in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Chiaki Ohtaka Faculty of Engineering, Nara Women’s University, Nara, Japan

Search for other papers by Chiaki Ohtaka in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Motoko Fujiwara Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Human Life and Environment, Nara Women’s University, Nara, Japan

Search for other papers by Motoko Fujiwara in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Hiroki Nakata Faculty of Engineering, Nara Women’s University, Nara, Japan

Search for other papers by Hiroki Nakata in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8549-6468 *
Restricted access

We investigated performance levels on conducting continuous two-footed jumping of preschool children (4 years old) to high school students (16 years old) to clarify the developmental progression and sex differences in motor coordination and agility. In total, 450 children (boys: 227; girls: 223) participated in this study. We set 10 obstacles to jump over for continuous two-footed jumping and analyzed the movement time (MT), aerial time (AT), and contact time (CT), and variabilities in AT and CT in 7 year-based categories, using a high-speed camera. We also used multiple regression analysis to identify the predictors of MT. MT and CT shortened until 8 years, whereas AT continued to shorten after 8 years, suggesting that the jumping strategy differs between those younger/older than 8 years. MT, AT, and CT were significantly shorter among boys than girls from preschool children to high school students. In addition, when using multiple regression analysis, the main predictor of MT changed gradually from SD of CT to AT with increasing age. Our findings suggest that the motor control mechanisms related to continuous two-footed jumping differ depending on the age and sex and provide findings to advance understanding of the age-related motor coordination and agility in children.

  • Collapse
  • Expand
  • Aaberge, K., & Mamen, A.A. (2019). Comparative study of fitness levels among Norwegian youth in 1988 and 2001. Sports, 7(2), Article 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/sports7020050

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Antunes, A.M., Maia, J.A., Gouveia, É.R., Thomis, M.A., Lefevre, J.A., Teixeira, A.Q., & Freitas, D.L. (2016). Change, stability and prediction of gross motor co-ordination in Portuguese children. Annals of Human Biology, 43(3), 201211. https://doi.org/10.3109/03014460.2015.1058419

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ashby, B.M., & Heegaard, J.H. (2002). Role of arm motion in the standing long jump. Journal of Biomechanics, 35(12), 16311637. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(02)00239-7

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Lai, S.K., Veldman, S.L.C., Hardy, L.L., Cliff, D.P., Morgan, P.J., Zask, A., Lubans, D.R., Shultz, S.P., Ridgers, N.D., Rush, E., Brown, H.L., & Okely, A.D. (2016). Correlates of gross motor competence in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(11), 16631688. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0495-z

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beerse, M., & Wu, J. (2016). Vertical stiffness and center-of-mass movement in children and adults during single-leg hopping. Journal of Biomechanics, 49(14), 33063312. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.08.014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beerse, M., & Wu, J. (2017). Comparison of whole-body vertical stiffness and leg stiffness during single-leg hopping in place in children and adults. Journal of Biomechanics, 56, 7175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.03.001

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harry, J.R., Paquette, M.R., Caia, J., Townsend, R.J., Weiss, L.W., & Schilling, B.K. (2015). Effects of footwear condition on maximal jumping performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(6), 16571665. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000813

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hraski, M., Hraski, Ž., & Prskalo, I. (2015). Comparison of standing long jump technique performed by subjects from different age groups. Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences, 98, 212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Katić, R., Pavić, R., & Cavala, M. (2013). Quantitative sex differentations of motor abilities in children aged 11–14. Collegium Antropologicum, 37, 8186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kidokoro, T., Tanaka, H., Naoi, K., Ueno, K., Yanaoka, T., Kashiwabara, K., & Miyashita, M. (2016). Sex-specific associations of moderate and vigorous physical activity with physical fitness in adolescents. European Journal of Sport Science, 16(8), 11591166. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2016.1183050

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kokštejn, J., Musálek, M., & Tufano, J.J. (2017) Are sex differences in fundamental motor skills uniform throughout the entire preschool period? PLoS One, 12(4), Article e0176556. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176556

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Korff, T., Horne, S.L., Cullen, S.J., & Blazevich, A.J. (2009). Development of lower limb stiffness and its contribution to maximum vertical jumping power during adolescence. Journal of Experimental Biology, 212(22), 37373742. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.033191

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laffaye, G., Choukou, M.A., Benguigui, N., & Padulo, J. (2016). Age- and gender-related development of stretch shortening cycle during a sub-maximal hopping task. Biology of Sport, 33(1), 2935. https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.1180169

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lambertz, D., Mora, I., Grosset, J.F., & Perot, C. (2003). Evaluation of musculotendinous stiffness in prepubertal children and adults, taking into account muscle activity. Journal of Applied Physiology, 95(1), 6472. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00885.2002

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Latorre-Román, P.Á., Mora-López, D., & García-Pinillos, F. (2016). Intellectual maturity and physical fitness in preschool children. Pediatrics International, 58(6), 450455. https://doi.org/10.1111/ped.12898

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Logan, S.W., Robinson, L.E., Wilson, A.E., & Lucas, W.A. (2012). Getting the fundamentals of movement: A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of motor skill interventions in children. Child Care Health Development, 38(3), 305315. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01307.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. https://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/sports/detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2011/04/07/1304379_1.pdf

  • Morris, A.M., Williams, J.M., Atwater, A.E., & Wilmore, J.H. (1982). Age and sex differences in motor performance of 3 through 6 year old children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 53(3), 214221. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1982.10609342

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakajima, K. (2016). The relations of physical fitness and the number of steps of children under school age — A comparison between spring and fall. Regional Studies, 17(1), 4362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakata, H., Nagami, T., Higuchi, T., Sakamoto, K., & Kanosue, K. (2013). Relationship between performance variables and baseball ability in youth baseball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 27(10), 28872897. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182a1f58a

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ogawa, M., Ohtaka, C., Fujiwara, M., & Nakata, H. (2021). Kinematic characteristics of the standing long jump in young children aged 4–5 years. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 9, 8094. https://doi.org/10.1123/jmld.2020-0026

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Radnor, J.M., Oliver, J.L., Waugh, C.M., Myer, G.D., Moore, I.S., & Lloyd, R.S. (2018). The influence of growth and maturation on stretch-shortening. Sports Medicine, 48(1), 5771. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0785-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheppard, J.M., & Young, W.B. (2006). Agility literature review: Classifications, training and testing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(9), 919932. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500457109

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silva, S., Mendes, H., Freitas, D., Prista, A., Tani, G., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Baxter-Jones, A.D.G., Valdivia, A.B., & Maia, J. (2019). Development of physical performance tasks during rapid growth in Brazilian children: The cariri healthy growth study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(24), Article 5029. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16245029

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takatoku, N. (2012). Young children’s coordination on “The Continuous bilateral hop”: A motion analysis. Annual Reports of Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, 28, 7987.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Takatoku, N. (2019). The effect of two-footed synchronism on spatiotemporal body control while hopping in young children. Japan Journal of Physical Education, Health and Sport Sciences, 64(2), 665674.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor, M.J., Cohen, D., Voss, C., & Sandercock, G.R. (2010). Vertical jumping and leg power normative data for English school children. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 867872. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640411003770212

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Capelle, A., Broderick, C.R., van Doorn, N., Ward, R.E., & Parmenter, B.J. (2017). Interventions to improve fundamental motor skills in pre-school aged children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(7), 658666. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.008

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walsh, M.S., Böhm, H., Butterfield, M.M., & Santhosam, J. (2007). Gender bias in the effects of arms and countermovement on jumping performance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21, 362366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wälti, M., Sallen, J., Adamakis, M., Ennigkeit, F., Gerlach, E., Heim, C., Jidovtseff, B., Kossyva, I., Labudová, J., Masaryková, D., Mombarg, R., De Sousa Morgado, L., Niederkofler, B., Niehues, M., Onofre, M., Pühse, U., Quitério, A., Scheuer, C., Seelig, H., Vlček, P., Vrbas, J., & Herrmann, C. (2022). Basic motor competencies of 6- to 8-year-old primary school children in 10 European countries: A cross-sectional study on associations with age, sex, body mass index, and physical activity. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, Article 804753. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.804753

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 882 600 18
Full Text Views 242 138 0
PDF Downloads 122 17 0