Factors Contributing to Australian Adolescents’ Self-Report of Their Motor Skill Competence

in Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $41.00

1 year subscription

USD  $55.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $79.00

2 year subscription

USD  $103.00

An adolescent’s motor skill competence can affect areas such as sports participation, social activities, and future academic or employment decisions. The Adolescent Motor Competence Questionnaire (AMCQ) is a 26-item questionnaire that uses a four-point Likert scale response (never, sometimes, frequently, always) to assess motor-related activities during adolescence. This study aims to provide evidence of the construct validity of the AMCQ using Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and to identify factors that contributed to Australian adolescent self-reported motor competence. A final aim was to determine whether individual item responses differed between males and females. The AMCQ was completed by 160 adolescents (12 to 16 years old, Mage = 14.45 years, SD = .75). The PCA using varimax rotation extracted four factors (Eiqenvalue of ≥1.21) explaining 52% of variance and representing Participation in Physical Activity and Sports, Activities of Daily Living, Public Performance, and Peer Comparison. Overall, males reported higher AMCQ scores compared to females. Females responded negatively (sometimes/never) to all items, particularly those on Physical Activity and Sports and Public Performance. Males who responded negatively had lower AMCQ scores than the females. These findings indicate male and female adolescents may judge their motor competence on different factors, which should be considered when planning physical activity interventions.

Timler and Hands are with the Institute for Health Research; McIntyre is with the School of Health Sciences; University of Notre Dame Australia, Fremantle, Australia.

Address author correspondence to Amanda Timler at amanda.timler1@my.nd.edu.au.
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Angelini, J.R. (2008). Television sports and athlete sex: Looking at the differences in watching male and female athletes. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 52(1), 1632. doi:10.1080/10934520701820752

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, A.L., Dawes, H., & Wilmut, K. (2013). Constraints and facilitators to participation in physical activity in teenagers with developmental co-ordination disorder: An exploratory interview study. Child Care Health Development, 39(3), 393403. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2012.01376.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, A.L., Henderson, S.E., Scheib, B., & Schulz, J. (2011). Handwriting difficulties and their assessment in young adults with DCD: Extension of the DASH for 17- to 25-year-olds. Journal of Adult Development, 18(3), 114121. doi:10.1007/s10804-011-9121-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L., Cliff, K., Morgan, P., & van Beurden, E. (2013). Adolescents’ perception of the relationship between movement skills, physical activity and sport. European Physical Education Review, 19(2), 271285. doi:10.1177/1356336X13486061

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., van Beurden, E., Morgan, P.J., Brooks, L.O., & Beard, J.R. (2010). Gender differences in motor skill proficiency from childhood to adolescence: A longitudinal study. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(2), 162170. PubMed ID: 20527301

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Byrd-Craven, J., & Geary, D.C. (2007). Biological and evolutionary contributions to developmental sex differences. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 15(2), 1222. doi:10.1016/S1472-6483(10)60545-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cairney, J., Hay, J., Faught, B., Mandigo, J., & Flouris, A. (2005). Developmental coordination disorder, self-efficacy toward physical activity, and play: Does gender matter? Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 22(1), 6782. doi:10.1123/apaq.22.1.67

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cairney, J., Kwan, M.Y.W., Hay, J.A., & Faught, B.E. (2013). Developmental coordination disorder, gender, and body weight: Examining the impact of participation in active play. Reserach in Developmental Disabilities, 22, 15661573. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2012.02.026

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Campbell, W.N., Missiuna, C., & Vaillancourt, T. (2012). Peer victimization and depression in children with and without motor coordination difficulties. Psychology in the Schools, 49(4), 328341. doi:10.1002/pits.21600

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cliff, D.P., Okely, A.D., Smith, L.M., & McKeen, K. (2009). Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 21(4), 436449. PubMed ID: 20128363 doi:10.1123/pes.21.4.436

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self esteem: The self protective propoerties of stigma. Psychological Review, 96, 608630. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.96.4.608

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doumen, S., Smits, I., Luyckx, K., Duriez, B., Vanhalst, J., Verschueren, K., & Goossens, L. (2012). Identity and perceived peer relationship quality in emerging adulthood: The mediating role of attachment-related emotions. Journal of Adolescence, 35(6), 14171425. PubMed ID: 22325118 doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrer-Caja, E., & Weiss, M.R. (2000). Predictors of intrinsic motivation among adolescent students in physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71(3), 267279. PubMed ID: 10999264 doi:10.1080/02701367.2000.10608907

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fitzpatrick, D.A., & Watkinson, E.J. (2003). The lived experience of physical awkwardness: Adults’ retrospective views. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 20(3), 279297. doi:10.1123/apaq.20.3.279

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fredricks, J.A., & Eccles, J.S. (2005). Family socialization, gender, and sport motivation and involvement. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 27(1), 331. doi:10.1123/jsep.27.1.3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guan, S.S.A., & Fuligni, A.J. (2016). Changes in parent, sibling, and peer support during the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 26(2), 286299. doi:10.1111/jora.12191

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hagger, M.S., Asçi, F.H., Lindwall, M. (2004). A cross-cultural evaluation of a multidimensional and hierarchical model of physical self-perceptions in three national samples. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(5), 10751107. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2004.tb02584.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hands, B., Larkin, D., Parker, H., Straker, L., & Perry, M. (2009). The relationship among physical activity, motor competence and health-related fitness in 14-year-old adolescents. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 19(5), 655663. PubMed ID: 18694431 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00847.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hands, B., Parker, H., Larkin, D., Cantell, M., & Rose, E. (2016). Male and female differences in health benefits derived from physical activity implications for exercise prescription. Journal of Women’s Health, Issue and Care, 5(4), 15. PubMed ID: 29448152 doi:10.4172/2325-9795.1000238

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hands, B., Parker, H., Rose, E., & Larkin, D. (2016). Gender and motor competence affects perceived likelihood and importance of physical activity outcomes among 14 year olds. Child Care Health and Development, 42(2), 246252. doi:10.1111/cch.12298

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harter, S. (1993). Causes and consequences of low self-esteem in children and adolescents. In R.F. Baumeister (Ed.), Self-esteem: The puzzle of low self-regard (pp. 87116). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harter, S. (2012). Construction of the self: Developmental and sociocultural foundations (2nd ed.). New York, NY/London, UK: Guilford Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hill, E.L., Brown, D., & Sorgardt, S.K. (2011). A preliminary investigation of quality of life satisfaction reports in emerging adults with and without developmental coordination disorder. Journal of Adult Development, 18(3), 130134. doi:10.1007/s10804-011-9122-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kilpatrick, M., Hebert, E., & Bartholomew, J. (2005). College students’ motivation for physical activity: Differentiating men’s and women’s motives for sport participation and exercise. Journal of American College Health, 54(2), 8794. PubMed ID: 16255320 doi:10.3200/JACH.54.2.87-94

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kroger, J. (2007). Identity development adolescence through adulthood (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publishing, Inc.

  • Labbrozzi, D., Robazza, C., Bertollo, M., Bucci, I., & Bortoli, L. (2013). Pubertal development, physical self-perception, and motivation toward physical activity in girls. Journal of Adolescence, 36(4), 759765. PubMed ID: 23849670 doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2013.06.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCarron, L. (1997). McCarron assessment of neuromuscular development (3rd ed.). Dallas, TX: McCarron-Dial Systems Inc.

  • Mehta, C.M., & Strough, J. (2010). Gender segregation and gender-typing in adolescence. Sex Roles, 63(3), 251263. doi:10.1007/s11199-010-9780-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Missiuna, C., Moll, S., King, G., King, S., & Law, M. (2006). “Missed and misunderstood”: Children with coordination difficulties in the school system. International Journal of Special Education, 21(1), 5367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Missiuna, C., Moll, S., King, G., Stewart, D., & Macdonald, K. (2008). Life experiences of young adults who have coordination difficulties. Candian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 75(3), 157166. doi:10.1177/000841740807500307

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Miyahara, M., & Cratty, B.J. (2004). Psychosocial functions of children and adolescents with movement disorders. In D.F. Tupper & D. Dewey (Eds.), Developmental motor disorders. New York, NY: Guilford.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moreno-Murcia, J.A., Sicilia, A., Cervello, E., Huescar, E., & Dumitru, D.C. (2011). The relationship between goal orientations, motivational climate and self-reported discipline in physical education. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 10(1), 119129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Okely, A.D., Booth, M.L., & Patterson, J.W. (2001). Relationship of physical activity to fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Medicine & Science in Sport & Exercise, 33(11), 18991904. doi:10.1097/00005768-200111000-00015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS Survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS (5th ed.). Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Payne, S., Ward, G., Turner, A., Clare Taylor, M., & Bark, C. (2013). The social impact of living with developmental coordination disorder as a 13-year-old. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(8), 362369. doi:10.4276/030802213X13757040168315

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, T.M., & Pittman, J.F. (2007). Adolescent psychological well-being by identity style. Journal of Adolescences, 30(6), 10211034. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.03.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piek, J., Baynam, G., & Barrett, N. (2006). The relationship between fine and gross motor ability, self-perceptions and self-worth in children and adolescents. Human Movement Science, 25, 6575. PubMed ID: 16442171 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2005.10.011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reed, J.A., Metzker, A., & Phillips, D.A. (2004). Relationships between physical activity and motor skills in middle school children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99(2), 483494. PubMed ID: 15560336 doi:10.2466/pms.99.2.483-494

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rose, E., Hands, B., & Larkin, D. (2011). Reliability and validity of the self-perception profile for adolescents: An Australian sample. Australian Journal of Psychology, 64(2), 9299. doi:10.1111/j.1742-9536.2011.00031.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rose, E., Larkin, D., Parker, H., & Hands, B. (2015). Does motor competence affect self-perceptions differently for adolescent males and females? SAGE Open, 5(4), 19. doi:10.1177/2158244015615922

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmalz, D.L., & Davison, K.K. (2006). Differences in physical self-concept among pre-adolescents who participate in gender-typed and cross-gendered sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 29(4), 335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slater, A., & Tiggemann, M. (2011). Gender differences in adolescent sport participation, teasing, self-objectification and body image concerns. Journal of Adolescence, 34(3), 455463. PubMed ID: 20643477 doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.06.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sollerhed, A.C., Apitzsch, E., Råstam, L., Ejlertsson, G. (2008). Factors associated with young children’s self-perceived physical competence and self-reported physical activity. Health Education Research, 23(1), 125136. PubMed ID: 17347524 doi:10.1093/her/cym010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spoor, J.R., & Hoye, R. (2014). Perceived support and women’s intentions to stay at a sport organization. British Journal of Management, 25(3), 407424. doi:10.1111/1467-8551.12018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stodden, D.F., Goodway, J.D., Langendorfer, S.J., Roberton, M.A., Rudisill, M.E., Garcia, C., & Garcia, L.E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 60(2), 290306. doi:10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tal-Saban, M.T., Ornoy, A., Grotto, I., & Parush, S. (2012). Adolescents and adults coordination questionnaire: Development and psychometric properties. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66(4), 406413. doi:10.5014/ajot.2012.003251

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tatlow-Golden, M., & Guerin, S. (2017). Who I am: The meaning of early adolescents’ most valued activities and relationships, and implications for self-concept research. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 37(2), 236266. doi:10.1177/0272431615599064

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Timler, A., McIntyre, F., Cantell, M., Crawford, S., & Hands, B. (2016). Development and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Adolescent Motor Competence Questionnaire (AMCQ) for adolescents. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 59, 127137. PubMed ID: 27525559 doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2016.08.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiss, M.R., & Smith, A.L. (2002). Friendship quality in youth sport: Relationship to age, gender, and motivation variables. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24(4), 420437. doi:10.1123/jsep.24.4.420

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilson, B.N., Crawford, S.G., Green, D., Roberts, G., Aylott, A., & Kaplan, B.J. (2009). Psychometric properties of the revised developmental coordination disorder questionnaire. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 29(2), 182202. PubMed ID: 19401931 doi:10.1080/01942630902784761

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ullrich-French, S., & Smith, A.L. (2009). Social and motivational predictors of continued youth sport participation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(1), 8795. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.06.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vandello, J.A., Bosson, J.K., Cohen, D., Burnaford, R.M., & Weaver, J.R. (2008). Precarious manhood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(6), 13251339. PubMed ID: 19025286 doi:10.1037/a0012453

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vannatta, K., Gartstein, M.A., Zeller, M., & Noll, R.B. (2009). Peer acceptance and social behavior during childhood and adolescence: How important are appearance, athleticism, and academic competence? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 33(4), 303311. doi:10.1177/0165025408101275

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zimmerman, M.A., Stoddard, S.A., Eisman, A.B., Caldwell, C.H., Aiyer, S.M., & Miller, A. (2013). Adolescent resilience: Promotive factors that inform prevention. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 4 2154220. doi:10.1111/cdep.12042

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziviani, J., Poulsen, A., & Hansen, C. (2009). Movement skills proficiency and physical activity: A case for Engaging and Coaching for Health (EACH)-Child. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 56(4), 259265. PubMed ID: 20854526 doi:10.1111/j.1440-1630.2008.00758.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 4 25 1
Full Text Views 0 1 0
PDF Downloads 0 2 0