Association Between Perceived and Actual Motor Competence in Portuguese Children

in Journal of Motor Learning and Development
View More View Less
  • 1 Polytechnic Institute of Bragança
  • 2 Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $42.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $56.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $80.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $107.00

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between actual (AMC) and perceived (PMC) motor competence in Portuguese children. A total of 200 children (111 [0.55%] girls) aged 5–9 years old participated in the study. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence (PMSC) and the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD2) were used to assess PMC and AMC, respectively. Mann-Whiney U was used to test the differences between sexes and age groups. The association between TGMD2 and PMSC scores was analyzed through Spearman correlation. Boys and girls of all ages showed to have high PMC. Independent of sex, mean values for each TGMD2 subtest increased throughout the age groups with older children having significantly higher mean scores than younger ones. In general, boys and girls showed similar PMC and AMC, independent of age. Weak to moderate and some negative correlations (0.24 < r < −0.40) were found between PMC and AMC scores for all age and sex groups. In conclusion, there appears to be little relationship between actual and perceived motor competence in Portuguese young children.

Lopes and Gonçalves are with the Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences, and Human Development (CIDESD), Dept. of Sports Science, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Bragança, Portugal. Saraiva is with the Research Centre in Child Studies (CIEC), School of Education, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Portugal. Rodrigues is with the Research Center in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences, and Human Development (CIDESD), School of Sports and Leisure of Melgaço, Polytechnic Institute of Viana do Castelo, Viana do Castelo, Portugal.

Address author correspondence to Vítor Pires Lopes at vplopes@ipb.pt.
  • Babic, M.J., Morgan, P.J., Plotnikoff, R.C., Lonsdale, C., White, R.L., & Lubans, D.R. (2014). Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 44(11), 15891601. PubMed ID: 25053012 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0229-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Hinkley, T., Okely, A.D., & Salmon, J. (2013). Child, family and environmental correlates of children’s motor skill proficiency. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 16(4), 332336. PubMed ID: 23020935 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2012.08.011

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Lai, S.K., Veldman, S.L.C., Hardy, L.L., Cliff, D.P., Morgan, P.J., … Okely, A.D. (2016). Correlates of gross motor competence in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 46(11), 16631688. doi:10.1007/s40279-016-0495-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Morgan, P.J., van Beurden, E., Ball, K., & Lubans, D.R. (2011). A Reverse pathway? Actual and perceived skill proficiency and physical activity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(5), 898904. PubMed ID: 20962694 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181fdfadd

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Morgan, P.J., van Beurden, E., & Beard, J.R. (2008). Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: A longitudinal assessment. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5(1), 40. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-40

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Ridgers, N.D., & Salmon, J. (2015). Associations between young children’s perceived and actual ball skill competence and physical activity. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(2), 167171. PubMed ID: 24685052 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.03.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Ridgers, N.D., Zask, A., & Salmon, J. (2015). Face validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing fundamental movement skill perceived competence in young children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18(1), 98102. PubMed ID: 24485803 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.12.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett, L.M., Vazou, S., Abbott, G., Bowe, S.J., Robinson, L.E., Ridgers, N.D., & Salmon, J. (2016). Construct validity of the pictorial scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 22(1), 294302. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.09.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brian, A.S., Goodway, J.D., Stodden, D., & Tsuda, E. (2014). Perceived and actual motor competence: Cross-sectional associations across childhood. Reaserch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 85(S1), 14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cools, W., De Martelaer, K., Samaey, C., & Andries, C. (2011). Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(7), 649660. PubMed ID: 21424981 doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.551540

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Meester, A., Maes, J., Stodden, D., Cardon, G., Goodway, J., Lenoir, M., & Haerens, L. (2016). Identifying profiles of actual and perceived motor competence among adolescents: Associations with motivation, physical activity, and sports participation. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(21), 20272037. PubMed ID: 26928601 doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1149608

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Meester, A., Stodden, D., Brian, A., True, L., Cardon, G., Tallir, I., & Haerens, L. (2016). Associations among elementary school children’s actual motor competence, perceived motor competence, physical activity and BMI: A cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 11(10), e0164600. PubMed ID: 27736964 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164600

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, J.L.C., & Watkinson, E.J. (1994). A study of the relationship between physical awkwardness and children’s perceptions of physical competence. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 11(3), 275283. doi:10.1123/apaq.11.3.275

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodway, J.D., Robinson, L.E., & Crowe, H. (2010). Gender differences in fundamental motor skill development in disadvantaged preschoolers from two geographical regions. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(1), 1724. PubMed ID: 20387395 doi:10.1080/02701367.2010.10599624

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodway, J.D., & Rudisill, M.E. (1997). Perceived physical competence and actual motor skill competence of African American preschool children. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 14(4), 314326. doi:10.1123/apaq.14.4.314

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodway, J.D., & Smith, D.W. (2005). Keeping all children healthy: Challenges to leading an active lifestyle for preschool children qualifying for at risk programs. Family & Community Health, 28(2), 142155. PubMed ID: 15778628 doi:10.1097/00003727-200504000-00006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harter, S. (1978). Effectance motivation reconsidered: Toward a developmental model. Human Development, 21(1), 3464. doi:10.1159/000271574

  • Harter, S. (1999). The construction of the self: A developmental perspective. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

  • Harter, S., & Pike, R. (1984). The pictorial scale of perceived competence and social acceptance for young children. Child Development, 55(6), 19691982. PubMed ID: 6525886 doi:10.2307/1129772

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Junaid, K.A., & Fellowes, S. (2006). Gender differences in the attainment of motor skills on the movement assessment battery for children. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 26(1–2), 511. doi:10.1080/J006v26n01_02

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Khodaverdi, Z., Bahram, A., Stodden, D., & Kazemnejad, A. (2016). The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: Mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness. Journal of Sports Sciences, 34(16), 15231529. doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1122202

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeGear, M., Greyling, L., Sloan, E., Bell, R., Williams, B.-L., Naylor, P.-J., & Temple, V. (2012). A window of opportunity? Motor skills and perceptions of competence of children in Kindergarten. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 29. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-29

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liong, G.H.E., Ridgers, N.D., & Barnett, L.M. (2015). Associations between skill perceptions and young children’s actual fundamental movement skills. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 120(2), 591603. PubMed ID: 25706343 doi:10.2466/10.25.PMS.120v18x2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopes, V.P., Barnett, L.M., & Rodrigues, L.P. (2016). Is there an association between actual motor competence, perceived motor competence, physical activity and sedentary behavior in preschool children?. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 4(2), 129141. doi:10.1123/jmld.2015-0012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopes, V.P., Barnett, L.M., Saraiva, L., Gonçalves, C., Bowe, S.J., Abbott, G., & Rodrigues, L.P. (2016). Validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing perceived motor competence in Portuguese children. Child Care Health and Development, 42(5), 666674. doi:10.1111/cch.12359

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopes, V.P., Maia, J.A.R., Rodrigues, L.P., & Malina, R.M. (2011). Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(5), 663669. PubMed ID: 21917017 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01027.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopes, V.P., Maia, J.A.R., Rodrigues, L.P., & Malina, R.M. (2012). Motor coordination, physical activity and fitness as predictors of longitudinal change in adiposity during childhood. European Journal of Sport Science, 12(4), 384391. doi:10.1080/17461391.2011.566368

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopes, V.P., Saraiva, L., & Rodrigues, L.P. (2018). Reliability and construct validity of the test of gross motor development-2 in Portuguese children. International Journal of Sport Psychology and Exercise, 16(3), 250260. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2016.1226923

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopes, V.P., Stodden, D.F., & Rodrigues, L.P. (2014). Weight status is associated with cross-sectional trajectories of motor co-ordination across childhood. Child: Care, Health and Development, 40(6), 891899. doi:10.1111/cch.12127

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McHugh, M.L. (2012). Interrater reliability: The kappa statistic. Biochemia Medica, 22(3), 276282. PubMed ID: 23092060 doi:10.11613/BM.2012.031

  • Raudsepp, L., & Liblik, R. (2002). Relationship of perceived and actual motor competence in children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 94(3c), 10591070. doi:10.2466/pms.2002.94.3c.1059

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, L.E. (2011). The relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschool children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 37(4), 589596. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01187.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson, L.E., Stodden, D.F., Barnett, L.M., Lopes, V.P., Logan, S.W., Rodrigues, L.P., & D’Hondt, E. (2015). Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Medicine, 45(9), 12731284. PubMed ID: 26201678 doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0351-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodrigues, L.P., Stodden, D.F., & Lopes, V.P. (2016). Developmental pathways of change in fitness and motor competence are related to overweight and obesity status at the end of primary school. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(1), 8792. PubMed ID: 25660571 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.01.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rose, B., Larkin, D., & Berger, B.G. (1997). Coordination and gender influences on the perceived competence of children. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 14(3), 210221. doi:10.1123/apaq.14.3.210

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruble, D. (1983). The development of social comparison processes and their role in achievementrelated self-socialization. In E.T. Higgins, D.N. Ruble, & W.W. Hartup (Eds.), Social cognition and social development: A sociocultural perspective (pp. 134157). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Slykerman, S., Ridgers, N.D., Stevenson, C., & Barnett, L.M. (2016). How important is young children’s actual and perceived movement skill competence to their physical activity? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(6), 488492. PubMed ID: 26232866 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.07.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spessato, B.C., Gabbard, C., Robinson, L., & Valentini, N.C. (2013). Body mass index, perceived and actual physical competence: The relationship among young children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 39(6), 845850. doi:10.1111/cch.12014

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spessato, B.C., Gabbard, C., Valentini, N., & Rudisill, M. (2012). Gender differences in Brazilian children’s fundamental movement skill performance. Early Child Development and Care, 183(7), 916923. doi:10.1080/03004430.2012.689761

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stodden, D.F., Goodway, J.D., Langendorfer, S.J., Robertson, M.A., Rudisill, M.E., Garcia, C., & Garcia, L.E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 60, 290306. doi:10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toftegaard-Stoeckel, J., Groenfeldt, V., & Andersen, L.B. (2010). Children’s self-perceived bodily competencies and associations with motor skills, body mass index, teachers’ evaluations, and parents' concerns. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(12), 13691375. PubMed ID: 20845214 doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.510845

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich, D.A. (2000). Test of gross motor development (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

  • van Beurden, E., Zask, A., Barnett, L.M., & Dietrich, U.C. (2002). Fundamental movement skills — How do primary school children perform? The ‘Move it Groove it’ program in rural Australia. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 5(3), 244252. PubMed ID: 12413042 doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(02)80010-X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vedul-Kjelsås, V., Sigmundsson, H., Stensdotter, A.K., & Haga, M. (2012). The relationship between motor competence, physical fitness and self-perception in children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 38(3), 394402. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01275.x

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White, R.W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66(5), 297333 . doi:10.1037/h0040934

  • Whitehead, J.R. (1995). A study of children’s physical self-perceptions using an adapted physical self-perception profile questionnaire. Pediatric Exercise Science, 7(2), 132151. doi:10.1123/pes.7.2.132

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 31 33 3
Full Text Views 1 0 0
PDF Downloads 1 0 0