Effect of Skill Level on Allocation of Visual Attention in Volleyball Blocking

in Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $41.00

1 year subscription

USD $55.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $79.00

2 year subscription

USD $103.00

Dynamic motor skills such as volleyball blocking rely on efficient perception–action coupling and are influenced by individual, environmental, and task constraints. However, limited research studies have assessed the effect of an individual constraint such as blocking skill on visual attention during an in-situ volleyball blocking task. Therefore, this study used a cross-sectional, observational design to investigate the gaze behavior of 18 male volleyball players (25.6 ± 4.9 years), of two different levels of blocking skill determined a priori according to success during an on-court blocking task. When compared to relatively unsuccessful players (RUS), the gaze of relatively successful players (RS) was observed to fixate more often (RUS: 0.7 ± 0.7 n, RS: 1.3 ± 0.3 n) and dwell for longer (Total; RUS: 12.2 ± 18.4%, RS: 48.0 ± 37.2%, Phase 4; RUS: 6.6 ± 8.8%, RS: 16.9 ± 12.4%) on the opposition spiker, demonstrating that important perceptual information about an opposing team’s attack lies within the behavior of the opposition spiker. More successful blockers were also observed to be taller (RUS: 181.8 ± 6.6 cm, RS: 192.6 ± 3.9 cm), longer in arm-span (RUS: 185.7 ± 5.6 cm, RS: 195.2 ± 5.6 cm), and heavier (RUS: 78.6 ± 11.4 kg, RS: 90.5 ± 8.5 kg). These results can consequently be used to develop a profile of the visual attention and physical attributes of successful blockers for use in developing talented players.

Laffer, Coutts, and Fransen are with the Dept. of Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Address author correspondence to Jason C. Laffer at Jason.Laffer@student.uts.edu.au.
Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Article Sections
References
  • AfonsoJ.GargantaJ.McRobertA.WilliamsA.M. & MesquitaI. (2012). The perceptual cognitive processes underpinning skilled performance in volleyball: Evidence from eye-movements and verbal reports of thinking involving an in situ representative task. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine 11(2) 339345. PubMed ID: 24149208

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AfonsoJ.GargantaJ.McRobertA.WilliamsA.M. & MesquitaI. (2014). Visual search behaviours and verbal reports during film-based and in situ representative tasks in volleyball. European Journal of Sport Science 14(2) 177184. PubMed ID: 24533524 doi:10.1080/17461391.2012.730064

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AfonsoJ.MesquitaI. & PalaoJ.M. (2005). Relationship between the use of commit-block and the numbers of blockers and block effectiveness. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 5(2) 3645. doi:10.1080/24748668.2005.11868326

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AmasayT. (2008). Static block jump techniques in volleyball: Upright versus squat starting positions. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 22(4) 12421248. PubMed ID: 18545182 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d5a7f

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AraújoR.MesquitaI. & MarcelinoR. (2009). Relationship between block constraints and set outcome in elite male volleyball. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 9(3) 306313. doi:10.1080/24748668.2009.11868487

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BorgeaudP. & AbernethyB. (1987). Skilled perception in volleyball defense. Journal of Sport Psychology 9(4) 400406. doi:10.1123/jsp.9.4.400

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cañal-BrulandR.MoorenM. & SavelsberghG.J. (2011). Differentiating experts’ anticipatory skills in beach volleyball. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 82(4) 667674. doi:10.1080/02701367.2011.10599803

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CohenJ. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (p. 2). Hilsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

  • DecroixM.WazirM.R.W.N.ZeuwtsL.DeconinckF.F.LenoirM. & VansteenkisteP. (2017). Expert–Non-expert differences in visual behaviour during alpine slalom skiing. Human Movement Science 55229239. PubMed ID: 28846855 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2017.08.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DicksM.ButtonC. & DavidsK. (2010). Examination of gaze behaviors under in situ and video simulation task constraints reveals differences in information pickup for perception and action. Attention Perception & Psychophysics 72(3) 706720. doi:10.3758/APP.72.3.706

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EomH.J. & SchutzR.W. (1992). Statistical analyses of volleyball team performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 63(1) 1118. PubMed ID: 1574656 doi:10.1080/02701367.1992.10607551

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FarrowD. & AbernethyB. (2003). Do expertise and the degree of perception—action coupling affect natural anticipatory performance? Perception 32(9) 11271139. PubMed ID: 14651325 doi:10.1068/p3323

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Federation Internationale de Volleyball. (2011). Volleyball history. Retrieved from http://www.fivb.org/en/volleyball/History.asp

  • HernandezE.UrenaA.MirandaM. & OnaA. (2004). Kinematic analysis of volleyball setting cues that affect anticipation in blocking. Journal of Human Movement Studies 47(4) 285301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KlostermannA.VaterC.KredelR. & HossnerE.-J. (2015). Perceptual training in beach volleyball defence: Different effects of gaze-path cueing on gaze and decision-making. Frontiers in Psychology 6113. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01834

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeS.-M. (2010). Does your eye keep on the ball?: The strategy of eye movement for volleyball defensive players during spike serve reception. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences 22(1). 128137.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LohmanT.RoacheA. & MartorellR. (1992). Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 24(8) 952. doi:10.1249/00005768-199208000-00020

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MannD.T.WilliamsA.M.WardP. & JanelleC.M. (2007). Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 29(4) 457478. PubMed ID: 17968048 doi:10.1123/jsep.29.4.457

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PalaoJ. & SantosJ. (2004). Effect of team level on skill performance in volleyball. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport 4(2) 5060. doi:10.1080/24748668.2004.11868304

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PanfilR. & SuperlakE. (2012). The relationships between the effectiveness of team play and the sporting level of a team. Human Movement 13(2) 152160. doi:10.2478/v10038-012-0017-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PinderR.A.DavidsK.RenshawI. & AraújoD. (2011). Representative learning design and functionality of research and practice in sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 33(1) 146155. PubMed ID: 21451175 doi:10.1123/jsep.33.1.146

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PirasA.LobiettiR. & SquatritoS. (2010). A study of saccadic eye movement dynamics in volleyball: Comparison between athletes and non-athletes. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 50(1) 99. PubMed ID: 20308980

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PirasA.LobiettiR. & SquatritoS. (2014). Response time, visual search strategy, and anticipatory skills in volleyball players. Journal of Ophthalmology 2014110. doi:10.1155/2014/189268

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rodriguez-RuizD.QuirogaM.E.MirallesJ.A.SarmientoS.de SaáY. & García-MansoJ.M. (2011). Study of the technical and tactical variables determining set win or loss in top-level European men’s volleyball. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports 7(1). doi:10.2202/1559-0410.1281

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RosenbaumD.A. & KornblumS. (1982). A priming method for investigating the selection of motor responses. Acta Psychologica 51(3) 223243. doi:10.1016/0001-6918(82)90036-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SchorerJ.RienhoffR.FischerL. & BakerJ. (2013). Foveal and peripheral fields of vision influences perceptual skill in anticipating opponents’ attacking position in volleyball. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 38(3) 185192. PubMed ID: 23775537 doi:10.1007/s10484-013-9224-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SheppardJ.M.GabbettT.J. & StanganelliL.-C.R. (2009). An analysis of playing positions in elite men’s volleyball: Considerations for competition demands and physiologic characteristics. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 23(6) 18581866. PubMed ID: 19675472 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b45c6a

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StammR.StammM.JairusA.ToopR.TuulaR. & JoãoP.V. (2017). Do height and weight play an important role in block and attack efficiency in high-level men’s volleyball? Papers on Anthropology 26(1) 6471. doi:10.12697/poa.2017.26.1.05

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StarkesJ.L.EdwardsP.DissanayakeP. & DunnT. (1995). A new technology and field test of advance cue usage in volleyball. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 66(2) 162167. PubMed ID: 7644836 doi:10.1080/02701367.1995.10762223

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TravassosB.AraújoD.DavidsK.O’HaraK.LeitaoJ. & CortinhasA. (2013). Expertise effects on decision-making in sport are constrained by requisite response behaviours–A meta-analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 14(2) 211219. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.11.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VaeyensR.LenoirM.WilliamsA.M.MazynL. & PhilippaertsR.M. (2007). The effects of task constraints on visual search behavior and decision-making skill in youth soccer players. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 29(2) 147169. PubMed ID: 17568064 doi:10.1123/jsep.29.2.147

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VansteenkisteP.CardonG.PhilippaertsR. & LenoirM. (2015). Measuring dwell time percentage from head-mounted eye-tracking data–comparison of a frame-by-frame and a fixation-by-fixation analysis. Ergonomics 58(5) 712721. PubMed ID: 25529829 doi:10.1080/00140139.2014.990524

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VansteenkisteP.VaeyensR.ZeuwtsL.PhilippaertsR. & LenoirM. (2014). Cue usage in volleyball: A time course comparison of elite, intermediate and novice female players. Biology of Sport 31(4) 295302. PubMed ID: 25609887 doi:10.5604/20831862.1127288

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WrightD.L.PleasantsF. & Gomez-MezaM. (1990). Use of advanced visual cue sources in volleyball. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 12(4) 406414. PubMed ID: 28796963 doi:10.1123/jsep.12.4.406

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 137 137 68
Full Text Views 2 2 1
PDF Downloads 0 0 0
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar