Physical Activity and Fundamental Movement Skills of 3- to 5-Year-Old Children in Irish Preschool Services

in Journal of Motor Learning and Development
View More View Less
  • 1 Dublin City University
  • 2 University College Cork
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $42.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $56.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $80.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $107.00

The aim of this study was to quantify levels of physical activity (PA) and fundamental movement skills (FMS) of children aged 3 to 5 years in Irish preschool services during care hours, and investigate the relationship between these two variables. Data were collected from 141 children (50.3% boys, age M = 3.9 ± 0.5 years) across 9 preschool services. Measurements included PA via accelerometry, and proficiency in four FMS (run, vertical jump, throw and catch). The recommended guideline of 15 minutes of PA per hour (min PA/hour) was met by 35% of children (M = 13.6 min PA/hour). Significant differences in mean PA per hour were found by gender, with boys (14.2 min PA/hour) more active than girls (13.0 min PA/ hour), and age, with younger children (14.2 min PA/hour) more active than older (12.6 minutes PA/hour). Percentage of children proficient in the run was high (88.4%), but low across the other skills (4.9%–18.5%). Significant differences were identified by gender for vertical jump with girls scoring higher than boys. No significant relationship was found between FMS and total PA. Low levels of PA and FMS proficiency highlight need for intervention in early years settings to ensure children develop skills to participate in PA.

Duff, Issartel, and Belton are with the School of Health and Human Performance, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. O’ Brien is with the School of Education, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Duff (christina.duff4@mail.dcu.ie) is corresponding author.
  • Ahn , S. , & Fedewa , A.L. (2011). A meta-analysis of the relationship between children’s physical activity and mental health. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(4), 385397. PubMed ID: 21227908 doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsq107

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Alhassan , S. , Nwaokelemeh , O. , Mendoza , A. , Shitole , S. , Whitt-Glover , M.C. , & Yancey , A.K. (2012). Design and baseline characteristics of the Short bouTs of Exercise for Preschoolers (STEP) study. BMC Public Health, 12(1), 582. PubMed ID: 22853642 doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-582

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Babic , M.J. , Morgan , P.J. , Plotnikoff , R.C. , Lonsdale , C. , White , R.L. , & Lubans , D.R. (2014). Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 44(11), 15891601. PubMed ID: 25053012 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0229-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barbu , S. , Cabanes , G. , & Le Maner-Idrissi , G. (2011). Boys and girls on the playground: Sex differences in social development are not stable across early childhood. PLoS ONE, 6(1), e16407. PubMed ID: 21297987 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016407

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett , L.M. , Salmon , J. , & Hesketh , K.D. (2016). More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: An observational cohort study. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 1068. PubMed ID: 27724941 doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3742-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Belton , S. , O’ Brien , W. , Meegan , S. , Woods , C. , & Issartel , J. (2014). Youth-physical activity towards health: Evidence and background to the development of the Y-PATH physical activity intervention for adolescents. BMC Public Health, 14(1), 122. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-122

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bolger , L. , Bolger , L. , O’Neill , C. , Coughlan , E. , O’Brien , W. , Lacey , S. , & Burns , C. (2017). Age and sex differences in fundamental movement skills among a cohort of Irish school children. Journal of Motor Learning and Development, 6(1), 81100. doi:10.1123/jmld.2017-0003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bornstein , D.B. , Beets , M.W. , Byun , W. , & McIver , K. (2011). Accelerometer-derived physical activity levels of preschoolers : A meta-analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(6), 504511. PubMed ID: 21684809 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2011.05.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caldwell , H.A.T. , Proudfoot , N.A. , King-Dowling , S. , Di Cristofaro , N.A. , Cairney , J. , & Timmons , B.W. (2016). Tracking of physical activity and fitness during the early years. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(5), 504510. PubMed ID: 27045869 doi:10.1139/apnm-2015-0338

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caspersen , C.J. , Powell , K.E. , & Christenson , G.M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: Definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974), 100(2), 12631. PubMed ID: 31326011 doi:10.2307/20056429

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). CDC growth charts. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts

  • Chaput , J.P. , Carson , V. , Gray , C. , & Tremblay , M. (2014). Importance of all movement behaviors in a 24 hour period for overall health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public health, 11(12), 1257512581. PubMed ID: 25485978 doi:10.3390/ijerph111212575

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chief Medical Officers. (2011). Start active, stay active: A report on physical activity for health from the four home countries’ Chief Medical Officer. London, England: Department of Health, Physical Activity, Health Improvement and Protection.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark , J.E. (2007). On the problem of motor skill development. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 78(5), 3944. doi:10.1080/07303084.2007.10598023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark , J.E. , & Metcalfe , J.S. (2002). The mountain of motor development: A metaphor. In J.E. Clark & J. Humphrey (Eds.), Motor Development: Research and Reviews, 2 , 163190. doi:10.4081/jlimnol.2013.e10

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cliff , D.P. , Okely , A.D. , Smith , L.M. , & McKeen , K. (2009). Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 21(4), 436449. doi:10.1123/pes.21.4.436

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen , J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. London, England: Routledge. doi:10.1234/12345678

  • Colella , D. , & Morano , M. (2011). Gross motor development and physical activity in kindergarten age children. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 6(Suppl. 2), 3336. doi:10.3109/17477166.2011.613661

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Colley , R.C. , Garriguet , D. , Adamo , K.B. , Carson , V. , Janssen , I. , Timmons , B.W. , & Tremblay , M.S. (2013). Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: A cross-sectional study. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 10(1), 54. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-10-54

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cook , R. (2012). Fundamental motor development and physical activity levels of kindergarten children in school district 61 Victoria, BC(Doctoral Dissertation). University of Victoria’s Research and Learning Repository. Retrieved from https://dspace.library.uvic.ca//handle/1828/4153

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cools , W. , Martelaer , K.D. , Samaey , C. , & Andries , C. (2009). Movement skill assessment of typically developing preschool children: a review of seven movement skill assessment tools. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 8(2), 15468. PubMed ID: 24149522 doi:10.1016/S0031-9406(05)66164-0

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Costa , S. , Barber , S.E. , Cameron , N. , & Clemes , S.A. (2014). Calibration and validation of the ActiGraph GT3X+ in 2-3 year olds. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 17(6), 617622. PubMed ID: 24365695 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.11.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Education Victoria. (1996). Fundamental motor skills a manual for classroom teachers. Melbourne, Australia: Community Information Service, Department of Education Victoria.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Health and Ageing, Commonwealth of Australia. (2010). National Physical Activity Guidelines for Australians. Physical Activity for 0-5 year olds. Canberra, Australia: Department of Health and Ageing, Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/9D831D9E6713F92ACA257BF0001F5218/$File/PA Rec 0-5 yo - Web printable version.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Department of Health and Children. (2009). Get Ireland active! The national guidelines on physical activity for Ireland. Dublin, Ireland: Health Service Executive.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Donath , L. , Faude , O. , Hagmann , S. , Roth , R. , & Zahner , L. (2015). Fundamental movement skills in preschoolers: A randomized controlled trial targeting object control proficiency. Child: Care, Health and Development, 41(6), 11791187. doi:10.1111/cch.12232

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dwyer , G.M. , Baur , L.A. , & Hardy , L.L. (2009). The challenge of understanding and assessing physical activity in preschool-age children: Thinking beyond the framework of intensity, duration and frequency of activity. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 12(5), 534536. PubMed ID: 19124273 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2008.10.005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Evans , J.D. (1996). Straightforward statistics for the behavioral sciences. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.

  • Fischer , K.W. , & Rose , S.P. (1998). Growth cycles of brain and mind. Educational Leadership, 56(3), 5660.

  • Gallahue , D.L. , & Ozmun , J.C. (2006). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults (6th ed.). Singapore: McGraw-Hill.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gehris , J.S. , Gooze , R.A. , & Whitaker , R.C. (2015). Teachers’ perceptions about children’s movement and learning in early childhood education programmes. Child: Care, Health and Development, 41(1), 122131. doi:10.1111/cch.12136

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ghazi , L. , Dudenbostel , T. , Xing , D. , Ejem , D. , Turner-Henson , A. , Joiner , C.I. , … Hage , F.G. (2016). Assessment of vascular function in low socioeconomic status preschool children: A pilot study. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 11(2), 101109. PubMed ID: 28063813 doi:10.1016/j.jash.2016.12.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goldfield , G.S. , Harvey , A. , Grattan , K. , & Adamo , K.B. (2012). Physical activity promotion in the preschool years: A critical period to intervene. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9(4), 13261342. PubMed ID: 22690196 doi:10.3390/ijerph9041326

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodway , J.D. , Famelia , R. , & Bakhtiar , S. (2014). Future directions in physical education & sport: Developing fundamental motor competence in the early years is paramount to lifelong physical activity. Asian Social Science, 10(5), 44. doi:10.5539/ass.v10n5p44

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodway , J.D. , & Robinson , L.E. (2006). SKIPing toward an active start: Promoting physical activity in preschoolers. Beyond the Journal: Young Chilldren, 61 , 16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardy , L.L. , King , L. , Farrell , L. , Macniven , R. , & Howlett , S. (2010). Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13(5), 503508. PubMed ID: 19850520 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2009.05.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harrington , D. , Murphy , M. , Carlin , A. , Coppinger , T. , Donnelly , A. , Dowd , K.P. , … Belton , S. (2016). Results from Ireland North and South’s 2016 report card on physical activity for children and youth. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13 , S183S188. doi:10.1123/jpah.2016-0334

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haywood , K.M. , & Getchell , N. (2009). Life span motor development (5th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • Hesketh , K.R. , Griffin , S.J. , & van Sluijs , E.M.F. (2015). UK Preschool-aged children’s physical activity levels in childcare and at home: A cross-sectional exploration. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 123. doi:10.1186/s12966-015-0286-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hesketh , K.R. , McMinn , A.M. , Ekelund , U. , Sharp , S.J. , Collings , P.J. , Harvey , N.C. , … van Sluijs , E.M.F. (2014). Objectively measured physical activity in four-year-old British children: A cross-sectional analysis of activity patterns segmented across the day. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(1), 1. PubMed ID: 24405936 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinkley , T. , Salmon , J. , Crawford , D. , Okely , A.D. , & Hesketh , K.D. (2016). Preschool and childcare center characteristics associated with children’s physical activity during care hours: An observational study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(1), 117. PubMed ID: 27836004 doi:10.1186/s12966-016-0444-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinkley , T. , Salmon , J. , Okely , A.D. , Crawford , D. , & Hesketh , K. (2012). Preschoolers’ physical activity, screen time, and compliance with recommendations. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44(3), 458465. PubMed ID: 21900847 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318233763b

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Institute of Medicine. (2011). Early childhood obesity prevention policies. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

  • Jaakkola , T. , Yli-Piipari , S. , Huotari , P. , Watt , A. , & Liukkonen , J. (2016). Fundamental movement skills and physical fitness as predictors of physical activity: A 6-year follow-up study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 26(1), 7481. PubMed ID: 25644386 doi:10.1111/sms.12407

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones , R.A. , Hinkley , T. , Okely , A.D. , & Salmon , J. (2013). Tracking physical activity and sedentary behavior in childhood: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 44(6), 651658. PubMed ID: 23683983 doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.03.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuczmarski , R.J. , Ogden , C.L. , Guo , S.S. , Grummer-Strawn , L.M. , Flegal , K.M. , Mei , Z. , … Johnson , C.L. (2002). 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States: Methods and development. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 11, (246), 1190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Larsen , L.R. , Kristensen , P.L. , Junge , T. , Rexen , C.T. , & Wedderkopp , N. (2015). Motor performance as predictor of physical activity in children: The CHAMPS study-DK. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(9), 18491856. PubMed ID: 25539477 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000604

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laukkanen , A. , Pesola , A. , Havu , M. , Sääkslahti , A. , & Finni , T. (2014). Relationship between habitual physical activity and gross motor skills is multifaceted in 5-to 8-year-old children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(2), e102e110. PubMed ID: 24118456 doi:10.1111/sms.12116

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laureus Sport for Good Foundation South Africa. (2018). South African 24-hour movement guidelines for birth to five years: An integration of physical activity, sitting behaviour, screen time and sleep. Retrieved from https://www.wits.ac.za/media/wits-university/research/coe-human/documents/EYMG%202-pager%20ONLINE.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeGear , M. , Greyling , L. , Sloan , E. , Bell , R.I. , Williams , B.-L. , Naylor , P.-J. , & Temple , V.A. (2012). A window of opportunity? Motor skills and perceptions of competence of children in Kindergarten. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 29. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-29

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lin , L.Y. , Cherng , R.J. , & Chen , Y.J. (2017). Relationship between time use in physical activity and gross motor performance of preschool children. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 64(1), 4957. PubMed ID: 27427505 doi:10.1111/1440-1630.12318

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindsay , A.C. , Greaney , M.L. , Wallington , S.F. , Mesa , T. , & Salas , C.F. (2017). A review of early influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviors of preschool-age children in high-income countries. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 22(3), e12182. doi:10.1111/jspn.12182

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liong , G.H. , Ridgers , N.D. , & Barnett , L.M. (2015). Associations between skill perceptions and young children’s actual fundamental movement skills. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 120(2), 591603. PubMed ID: 25706343 doi:10.2466/10.25.PMS.120v18x2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Logan , S.W. , Kipling Webster , E. , Getchell , N. , Pfeiffer , K.A. , & Robinson , L.E. (2015). Relationship between fundamental motor skill competence and physical activity during childhood and adolescence: A systematic review. Kinesiology Review, 4(4), 416426. doi:10.1123/kr.2013-0012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lopes , V.P. , Rodrigues , L.P. , Maia , J.R. , & Malina , R.M. (2011). Motor coordination as predictor of physical activity in childhood. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(5), 663669. PubMed ID: 21917017 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01027.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loprinzi , P.D. , Davis , R.E. , & Fu , Y.C. (2015). Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity. Preventive Medicine Reports, 2 , 833838. PubMed ID: 26844157 doi:10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.09.015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lubans , D. , Richards , J. , Hillman , C. , Faulkner , G. , Beauchamp , M. , Nilsson , M. , … Biddle , S. (2016). Physical activity for cognitive and mental health in youth: A systematic review of mechanisms. Pediatrics, 138(3), e20161642. PubMed ID: 27542849 doi:10.1542/peds.2016-1642

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Malina , R.M. , Bouchard , C. , & Bar-Or , O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human kinetics.

  • McKenzie , T.L. , Sallis , J.F. , Broyles , S.L. , Zive , M.M. , Nader , P.R. , Berry , C.C. , & Brennan , J.J. (2002). Childhood movement skills: Predictors of physical activity in anglo american and mexican american adolescents? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73(3), 238244. PubMed ID: 12230330 doi:10.1080/02701367.2002.10609017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Morley , D. , Till , K. , Ogilvie , P. , & Turner , G. (2015). Influences of gender and socioeconomic status on the motor proficiency of children in the UK. Human Movement Science, 44 , 150156. PubMed ID: 26342797 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2015.08.022

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Council for Curriculum Assessment. (2009). Aistear: The early childhood curriculum framework. Dublin, Ireland: National Council for Curriculum Assessment.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Brien , W. , Issartel , J. , & Belton , S. (2013). Evidence for the efficacy of the youth-physical activity towards health (Y-PATH) intervention. Advances in Physical Education, 3(4), 145153. doi:10.4236/ape.2013.34024

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Brien , K.T. , Vanderloo , L.M. , Bruijns , B.A. , Truelove , S. , & Tucker , P. (2018). Physical activity and sedentary time among preschoolers in centre-based childcare: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15(1), 117. doi:10.1186/s12966-018-0745-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Okely , A.D. , Ghersi , D. , Hesketh , K.D. , Santos , R. , Loughran , S.P. , Cliff , D.P. , … Sherring , J. (2017). A collaborative approach to adopting/adapting guidelines-The Australian 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years (Birth to 5 years): An integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. BMC Public Health, 17(S5), 869. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4867-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Neill , J.R. , Pfeiffer , K.A. , Dowda , M. , & Pate , R.R. (2016). In-school and out-of-school physical activity in preschool children. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13(6), 606610. doi:10.1123/jpah.2015-0245

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pate , R.R. , Almeida , M.J. , McIver , K.L. , Pfeiffer , K.A. , & Dowda , M. (2006). Validation and calibration of an accelerometer in preschool children. Obesity, 14(11), 20002006. PubMed ID: 17135617 doi:10.1038/oby.2006.234

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pate , R.R. , McIver , K. , Dowda , M. , Brown , W.H. , & Addy , C. (2008). Directly observed physical activity levels in preschool children. Journal of school health, 78(8), 438444. PubMed ID: 18651931 doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.00327.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pate , R.R. , O’Neill , J.R. , Brown , W.H. , Pfeiffer , K.A. , Dowda , M. , & Addy , C.L. (2015). Prevalence of compliance with a new physical activity guideline for preschool-age children. Childhood obesity, 11(4), 415420. PubMed ID: 26121562 doi:10.1089/chi.2014.0143

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pate , R.R. , O’Neill , J.R. , & Mitchell , J. (2010). Measurement of physical activity in preschool children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(3), 508512. PubMed ID: 20068498 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181cea116

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pellegrini , A.D. , & Smith , P.K. (1998). Physical activity play: The nature and function of a neglected aspect of playing. Child Development, 69(3), 577598. PubMed ID: 9680672 doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06226.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pfeiffer , K.A. , Saunders , R.P. , Brown , W.H. , Dowda , M. , Addy , C.L. , & Pate , R.R. (2013). Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES): Study protocol for a randomized trial evaluating a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschool children. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 728. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-728

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pica , R. (2011). Learning by leaps and bounds. Young Children, 5658.

  • Pobal. (2016). Early years sector profile 2015 - 2016. Department of Children and Youth Affairs. Retrieved from www.pobal.ie/app/uploads/2018/06/Early-Years-Sector-Profile-Report-2016-2017.pdf

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poitras , V.J. , Gray , C.E. , Borghese , M.M. , Carson , V. , Chaput , J.P. , Janssen , I. , … Sampson , M. (2016). Systematic review of the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(6), S197S239. doi:10.1139/apnm-2015-0663

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rice , K.R. , & Trost , S.G. (2014). Physical activity levels among children attending family day care. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 46(3), 197202. PubMed ID: 24144500 doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2013.09.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Robinson , L.E. , Stodden , D.F. , Barnett , L.M. , Lopes , V.P. , Logan , S.W. , Rodrigues , L.P. , & D’Hondt , E. (2015). Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Medicine, 45(9), 12731284. PubMed ID: 26201678 doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0351-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saraiva , L. , Rodrigues , L.P. , Cordovil , R. , & Barreiros , J. (2013). Motor profile of Portuguese preschool children on the peabody developmental motor scales-2: A cross-cultural study. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(6), 19661973. PubMed ID: 23584176 doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.03.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sasaki , J.E. , John , D. , & Freedson , P.S. (2011). Validation and comparison of ActiGraph activity monitors. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(5), 411416. PubMed ID: 21616714 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2011.04.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Skouteris , H. , Dell’Aquila , D. , Baur , L.A. , Dwyer , G.M. , McCabe , M.P. , Ricciardelli , L.A. , & Fuller-Tyszkiewicz , M. (2012). Physical activity guidelines for preschoolers: A call for research to inform public health policy. Medical Journal of Australia, 196(3), 174176. PubMed ID: 22339522 doi:10.5694/mja11.11015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stodden , D.F. , Goodway , J.D. , Langendorfer , S.J. , Roberton , M.A. , Rudisill , M.E. , Garcia , C. , & Garcia , L.E. (2008). A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 60(2), 290306. doi:10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tandon , P.S. , Tovar , A. , Jayasuriya , A.T. , Welker , E. , Schober , D.J. , Copeland , K. , … Ward , D.S. (2016). The relationship between physical activity and diet and young children’s cognitive development: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine Reports, 3 , 379390. PubMed ID: 27419040 doi:10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.04.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Telama , R. , Yang , X. , Leskinen , E. , Kankaanpää , A. , Hirvensalo , M. , Tammelin , T. , … Raitakari , O.T. (2014). Tracking of physical activity from early childhood through youth into adulthood. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 46(5), 955962. PubMed ID: 24121247 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000181

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Timmons , B.W. , LeBlanc , A.G. , Carson , V. , Connor Gorber , S. , Dillman , C. , Janssen , I. , … Tremblay , M. (2012). Systematic review of physical activity and health in the early years (aged 0-4 years). Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(4), 773792. PubMed ID: 22765840 doi:10.1139/h2012-070

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tremblay , M.S. , Chaput , J.P. , Adamo , K.B. , Aubert , S. , Barnes , J.D. , Choquette , L. , … Gruber , R. (2017). Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for the early years (0-4 years): An integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. BMC Public Health, 17(S5), 874. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4859-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tremblay , M.S. , LeBlanc , A.G. , Carson , V. , Choquette , L. , Connor Gorber , S. , Dillman , C. , … Timmons , B.W. (2012). Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 37(2), 345356. PubMed ID: 22448608 doi:10.1139/h2012-018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Trost , S.G. , Sirard , J.R. , Dowda , M. , Pfeiffer , K.A. , & Pate , R.R. (2003). Physical activity in overweight and nonoverweight preschool children. International Journal of Obesity, 27(7), 834839. PubMed ID: 12821970 doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802311

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tucker , P. , & Irwin , J.D. (2010). Physical activity behaviors during the preschool years. Child Health and Education, 1(3), 134145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tucker , P. , Maltby , A.M. , Burke , S.M. , Vanderloo , L.M. , & Irwin , J.D. (2016). Comparing physical activity and sedentary time among overweight and nonoverweight preschoolers enrolled in early learning programs: A cross-sectional study. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(9), 971976. PubMed ID: 27532225 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ulrich , D. (2000). Test of gross motor development - Version 2. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

  • Vale , S. , Silva , P. , Santos , R. , Soares-Miranda , L. , & Mota , J. (2010). Compliance with physical activity guidelines in preschool children. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(6), 603608. PubMed ID: 20397094 doi:10.1080/02640411003702694

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vale , S. , Trost , S.G. , Rego , C. , Abreu , S. , & Mota , J. (2015). Physical activity, obesity status, and blood pressure in preschool children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 167(1), 98102. PubMed ID: 25962928 doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.04.031

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Valentini , N.C. (2012). Validity and reliability of the TGMD-2 for Brazilian children. Journal of Motor Behavior, 44(4), 275280. PubMed ID: 22857518 doi:10.1080/00222895.2012.700967

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Beurden , E. , Barnett , L.M. , Zask , A. , Dietrich , U.C. , Brooks , L.O. , & Beard , J. (2003). Can we skill and activate children through primary school physical education lessons? “Move it Groove it” - A collaborative health promotion intervention. Preventive Medicine, 36(4), 493501. PubMed ID: 12649058 doi:10.1016/S0091-7435(02)00044-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Cauwenberghe , E. , Gubbels , J. , De Bourdeaudhuij , I. , & Cardon , G. (2011). Feasibility and validity of accelerometer measurements to assess physical activity in toddlers. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8(1), 67. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-67

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vanderloo , L. , & Tucker , P. (2015). Weekly trends in preschoolers’ physical activity and sedentary time in childcare. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(3), 24542464. PubMed ID: 25809506 doi:10.3390/ijerph120302454

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Veldman , S.L.C. , Palmer , K.K. , Okely , A.D. , & Robinson , L.E. (2017). Promoting ball skills in preschool-age girls. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(1), 5054. PubMed ID: 27283343 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.04.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Warburton , D.E. , & Bredin , S.S. (2017). Health benefits of physical activity: A systematic review of current systematic reviews. Current Opinion in Cardiology, 32(5), 541556. PubMed ID: 28708630 doi:10.1097/HCO.0000000000000437

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williams , H.G. , Pfeiffer , K.A. , O’Neill , J.R. , Dowda , M. , McIver , K.L. , Brown , W.H. , & Pate , R.R. (2008). Motor skill performance and physical activity in preschool children. Obesity, 16(6), 14211426. PubMed ID: 18388895 doi:10.1038/oby.2008.214

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Woods , C.B. , Tannehill , D. , Quinlan , A. , Moyna , N. , & Walsh , J. (2010). The Children’s Sport Participation and Physical Activity Study (CSPPA) (Research Report No. 1). Dublin, Ireland: School of Health and Human Performance, Dublin City University and the Irish Sports Council.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yang , S.C. , Lin , S.J. , & Tsai , C.Y. (2015). Effect of sex, age, and BMI on the development of locomotor skills and object control skills among preschool children. Perceptual and motor skills, 121(3), 873888.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 507 508 68
Full Text Views 12 12 2
PDF Downloads 4 4 1