Postural Control Profiles of Typically Developing Children From 6 to 12 Years old: An Approach Using Self-Organizing Maps

in Journal of Motor Learning and Development
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $42.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $56.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $80.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $107.00

The purposes of the present study were a) to establish postural control profiles for individuals 6–12 years of age, b) to analyze the participants’ characteristics (age, sex, weight, height, and physical activity) in those profiles, and c) to analyze the influence of visual information in the profiles found. Two hundred and eight typically developing children aged 6–12 years performed two trials in bipedal standing position with eyes open and closed. Feature extraction involved time, frequency, and sway-density plot variables using signals from the center of pressure. A Self-Organizing Map was used to classify and visualize the values of the participants in all the postural control variables tested. A k-means cluster analysis was applied to generate a small number of postural control profiles. The results determined six postural control profiles; three with participants denoting high stability and three considered as low stability profiles. Age, sex, and height were related to the postural control profiles. Boys were more frequently allocated in high stability clusters than girls, while the other factors yielded unclear difference between high and low stability profiles. The analysis of children’s profiles reflecting postural stability should therefore involve more than one factor including the individuals’ age, sex, and height.

García-Massó and Estevan are with the Departamento de Didáctica de la Expresión Musical, Plástica y Corporal, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. García-Massó, Villarrasa-Sapiña, and Gonzalez are with the HuMAG (Human Movement Analysis Group), Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Izquierdo-Herrera, Villarrasa-Sapiña, and Gonzalez are with the Departamento de Educación Física y Deportiva, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

García-Massó (xavier.garcia@uv.es) is corresponding author.
  • Assaiante, C., Mallau, S., Viel, S., Jover, M., & Schmitz, C. (2005). Development of postural control in healthy children: A functional approach. Neural Plasticity, 12(2–3), 109118. PubMed ID: 16444902 doi:10.1155/NP.2005.109

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Assaiante, C., Woollacott, M., & Amblard, B. (2000). Development of postural adjustment during gait initiation: Kinematic and EMG analysis. Journal of Motor Behavior, 32(3), 211226. PubMed ID: 10975270 doi:10.1080/00222890009601373

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baratto, L., Morasso, P.G., Re, C., & Spada, G. (2002). A new look at posturographic analysis in the clinical context: Sway-density versus other parameterization techniques. Motor Control, 6(3), 246270. PubMed ID: 12122219 doi:10.1123/mcj.6.3.246

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartlett, H.L., Ting, L.H., & Bingham, J.T. (2014). Accuracy of force and center of pressure measures of the Wii balance board. Gait & Posture, 39(1), 224228. PubMed ID: 23910725 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.07.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergman, L.R., & Magnusson, D. (1997). A person-oriented approach in research on developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 9(2), 291319. PubMed ID: 9201446 doi:10.1017/S095457949700206X

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Clark, R.A., Bryant, A.L., Pua, Y., McCrory, P., Bennell, K., & Hunt, M. (2010). Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii balance board for assessment of standing balance. Gait & Posture, 31(3), 307310. PubMed ID: 20005112 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2009.11.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Condon, C., & Cremin, K. (2014). Static balance norms in children. Physiotherapy Research International, 19(1), 17. PubMed ID: 23703740 doi:10.1002/pri.1549

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • De Kegel, A., Dhooge, I., Cambier, D., Baetens, T., Palmans, T., & Van Waelvelde, H. (2011). Test-retest reliability of the assessment of postural stability in typically developing children and in hearing impaired children. Gait & Posture, 33(4), 679685. PubMed ID: 21458269 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.02.024

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • D’Hondt, E., Deforche, B., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Gentier, I., Tanghe, A., Shultz, S., & Lenoir, M. (2011). Postural balance under normal and altered sensory conditions in normal-weight and overweight children. Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon), 26(1), 8489. PubMed ID: 20850213 doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2010.08.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferber-Viart, C., Ionescu, E., Morlet, T., Froehlich, P., & Dubreuil, C. (2007). Balance in healthy individuals assessed with Equitest: Maturation and normative data for children and young adults. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 71(7), 10411046. PubMed ID: 17467063 doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2007.03.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferreira, A.D.S., & Baracat, P.J. (2014). Test–retest reliability for assessment of postural stability using center of pressure spatial patterns of three-dimensional statokinesigrams in young health participants. Journal of Biomechanics, 47(12), 29192924. PubMed ID: 25110166 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.07.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fujiwara, K., Kiyota, T., Mammadova, A., & Yaguchi, C. (2011). Age-related changes and sex differences in postural control adaptability in children during periodic floor oscillation with eyes closed. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 30(5), 187194. PubMed ID: 21963826 doi:10.2114/jpa2.30.187

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geldhof, E., Cardon, G., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Danneels, L., Coorevits, P., Vanderstraeten, G., & De Clercq, D. (2006). Static and dynamic standing balance: Test-retest reliability and reference values in 9 to 10 year old children. European Journal of Pediatrics, 165(11), 779786. PubMed ID: 16738867 doi:10.1007/s00431-006-0173-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilfriche, P., Deschodt-Arsac, V., Blons, E., & Arsac, L.M. (2018). Frequency-specific fractal analysis of postural control accounts for control strategies. Frontiers in Physiology, 9, 293. PubMed ID: 29643816 doi:10.3389/fphys.2018.00293

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Houwen, S., Hartman, E., & Visscher, C. (2010). The relationship among motor proficiency, physical fitness, and body composition in children with and without visual impairments. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(3), 290299. PubMed ID: 20949849 doi:10.1080/02701367.2010.10599677

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hsu, Y.-S., Kuan, C.-C., & Young, Y.-H. (2009). Assessing the development of balance function in children using stabilometry. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 73(5), 737740. PubMed ID: 19232750 doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2009.01.016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huang, H.J., Kary, A., & Ahmed, A.A. (2012). CU Wii balance board project. University of Colorado Neuromechanics Lab Website. Retrieved from https://www.colorado.edu/neuromechanics/research/wii-balance-board-project

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huurnink, A., Fransz, D.P., Kingma, I., & van Dieën, J.H. (2013). Comparison of a laboratory grade force platform with a Nintendo Wii balance board on measurement of postural control in single-leg stance balance tasks. Journal of Biomechanics, 46(7), 13921395. PubMed ID: 23528845 doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.02.018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jeka, J.J., Allison, L.K., & Kiemel, T. (2010). The dynamics of visual reweighting in healthy and fall-prone older adults. Journal of Motor Behavior, 42(4), 197208. PubMed ID: 20501430 doi:10.1080/00222895.2010.481693

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kiers, H., van Dieën, J., Dekkers, H., Wittink, H., & Vanhees, L. (2013). A systematic review of the relationship between physical activities in sports or daily life and postural sway in upright stance. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 43(11), 11711189. PubMed ID: 23955562 doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0082-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • King, A.C., Challis, J.H., Bartok, C., Costigan, F.A., & Newell, K.M. (2012). Obesity, mechanical and strength relationships to postural control in adolescence. Gait & Posture, 35(2), 261265. PubMed ID: 22018701 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.09.017

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kirshenbaum, N., Riach, C.L., & Starkes, J.L. (2001). Non-linear development of postural control and strategy use in young children: A longitudinal study. Experimental Brain Research, 140(4), 420431. PubMed ID: 11685395 doi:10.1007/s002210100835

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kowalski, K., Crocker, P., & Donen, R. (2004). The physical activity questionnaire for older children (PAQ-C) and adolescents (PAQ-A) manualSaskatoon: University of Saskatchewan.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lebiedowska, M.K., & Syczewska, M. (2000). Invariant sway properties in children. Gait & Posture, 12(3), 200204. PubMed ID: 11154930 doi:10.1016/S0966-6362(00)00080-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Libardoni, T.C., Silveira, C.B.D., Sinhorim, L.M.B., Oliveira, A.S., Santos, M.J.D., & Santos, G. M. (2018). Reference values and equations reference of balance for children of 8 to 12 years. Gait & Posture, 60, 122127. PubMed ID: 29190542 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.11.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lima, R.A., Bugge, A., Pfeiffer, K.A., & Andersen, L.B. (2017). Tracking of gross motor coordination from childhood into adolescence. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 88(1), 5259. PubMed ID: 28075705 doi:10.1080/02701367.2016.1264566

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mickle, K.J., Munro, B.J., & Steele, J.R. (2011). Gender and age affect balance performance in primary school-aged children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 14(3), 243248. PubMed ID: 21276751 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2010.11.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paillard, T. (2014). Sport-specific balance develops specific postural skills. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 44(7), 10191020. PubMed ID: 24668292 doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0174-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Paillard, T., & Noé, F. (2015). Techniques and methods for testing the postural function in healthy and pathological subjects. BioMed Research International, 2015, 891390. PubMed ID: 26640800 doi:10.1155/2015/891390

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Park, D.-S., & Lee, G. (2014). Validity and reliability of balance assessment software using the Nintendo Wii balance board: Usability and validation. Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation, 11, 99. PubMed ID: 24912769 doi:10.1186/1743-0003-11-99

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pellicer-Chenoll, M., Garcia-Massó, X., Morales, J., Serra-Añó, P., Solana-Tramunt, M., González, L.-M., & Toca-Herrera, J.-L. (2015). Physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents: A self-organizing maps approach. Health Education Research, 30(3), 436448. PubMed ID: 25953972 doi:10.1093/her/cyv016

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perrin, P.P., Jeandel, C., Perrin, C.A., & Béné, M.C. (1997). Influence of visual control, conduction, and central integration on static and dynamic balance in healthy older adults. Gerontology, 43(4), 223231. PubMed ID: 9222751 doi:10.1159/000213854

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Prieto, T.E., Myklebust, J.B., Hoffmann, R.G., Lovett, E.G., & Myklebust, B.M. (1996). Measures of postural steadiness: Differences between healthy young and elderly adults. IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering, 43(9), 956966. PubMed ID: 9214811 doi:10.1109/10.532130

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simoneau, M., Teasdale, N., Bourdin, C., Bard, C., Fleury, M., & Nougier, V. (1999). Aging and postural control: Postural perturbations caused by changing the visual anchor. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 47(2), 235240. PubMed ID: 9988297 doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1999.tb04584.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stoffregen, T.A., Pagulayan, R.J., Bardy, B.G., & Hettinger, L.J. (2000). Modulating postural control to facilitate visual performance. Human Movement Science, 19(2), 203220. doi:10.1016/S0167-9457(00)00009-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vesanto, J., Himberg, J., Alhoniemi, E., & Parhankangas, J. (1999). Selforganizing map in matlab: The SOM toolbox. Proceedings of the Matlab DSP Conference, 99, 3540.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Villarrasa-Sapiña, I., García-Massó, X., Serra-Añó, P., Garcia-Lucerga, C., Gonzalez, L.-M., & Lurbe, E. (2016). Differences in intermittent postural control between normal-weight and obese children. Gait & Posture, 49, 16. PubMed ID: 27344447 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.06.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yeh, T.T., Cluff, T., & Balasubramaniam, R. (2014). Visual reliance for balance control in older adults persists when visual information is disrupted by artificial feedback delays. PLoS One, 9(3), e91554. PubMed ID: 24614576 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091554

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zemková, E. (2014). Sport-specific balance. Sports Medicine (Auckland, N.Z.), 44(5), 579590. PubMed ID: 24293269 doi:10.1007/s40279-013-0130-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 328 328 56
Full Text Views 10 10 0
PDF Downloads 7 7 0