Fine Motor Skills and Unsystematic Spatial Binding in the Common Region Test: Under-Inclusivity in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Over-Inclusivity in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

in Journal of Motor Learning and Development
View More View Less
  • 1 London Metropolitan University
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $42.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $56.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $80.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $107.00

Introduction: The Common Region Test (CRT) is useful for predicting children’s visual memory as individual object-place binding predicted better object memory while objects-region coding predicted better place memory. Aim: To test children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with regards to spatial binding in the CRT. Methods: 19 children with ASD and 20 children with ADHD were gender-matched with 39 typically developing children by chronological age and with another 39 children by verbal mental age as control groups (N = 117) and tested with the CRT and Bender Gestalt test. Results: Children with ASD and ADHD showed more unsystematic coding than typically developing children. This was due to lower fine motor skills, and in children with ADHD also because of reduced verbal naming. Almost all children with ASD presented the less mature under-inclusive Type I unsystematic coding which included object-place binding, while children with ADHD showed the over-inclusive Type II unsystematic coding that was overriding the Gestalt-like properties of proximity and similarity. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that the CRT is a useful screening instrument for ASD and ADHD that shows that their spatial categorization varies in their unsystematic visuo-spatial classification due to fine motor skill deficiencies.

The authors are with the School of Social Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London, United Kingdom.

Lange-Kuettner (c.langekuettner@londonmet.ac.uk) is corresponding author.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Material (pdf 5 MB)
  • Alderson-Day, B., & McGonigle-Chalmers, M. (2011). Is it a bird? Is it a plane? Category use in problem-solving in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(5), 555565. PubMed ID: 20676747 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arden, R., Trzaskowski, M., Garfield, V., & Plomin, R. (2014). Genes influence young children’s human figure drawings and their association with intelligence a decade later. Psychological Science, 25(10), 18431850. PubMed ID: 25143430 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baron-Cohen, S., Ashwin, E., Ashwin, C., Tavassoli, T., & Chakrabarti, B. (2009). Talent in autism: hyper-systemizing, hyper-attention to detail and sensory hypersensitivity. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364(1522), 13771383. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bondi, D., Di Sano, S., Verratti, V., Neri, G., Aureli, T., & Pietrangelo, T. (2020). New insight on motor behavior: the link between the hopping task and the tracing performance as hint of gross and fine-motor functions. Motor Control. Advance online publication. doi:

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Booth, R., Charlton, R., Hughes, C., & Happé, F. (2003). Disentangling weak coherence and executive dysfunction: planning drawing in autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 358(1430), 387392. PubMed ID: 12639335 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brannigan, G.G. (2003). Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test. New York, NY: Wiley.

  • Brito, G.N.O., & Santos-Morales, T.R. (2002). Developmental norms for the Gardner Steadiness Test and the Purdue Pegboard: A study with children of a metropolitan school in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 35(8), 931949. PubMed ID: 12185386 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bundgaard, A.-K.F., Asmussen, J., Pedersen, N.S., & Bilenberg, N. (2018). Disturbed sleep and activity in toddlers with early signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Sleep Research, 27(5), e12686. PubMed ID: 29527757 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Callanan, M.A., & Markman, E.M. (1982). Principles of organization in young children’s natural language hierarchies. Child Development, 53(4), 10931101. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cardillo, R., Menazza, C., & Mammarella, I.C. (2018). Visuoconstructive abilities and visuospatial memory in autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability: Is the role of local bias specific to the cognitive domain tested? Neuropsychology, 32(7), 822834. PubMed ID: 29878839 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chamberlain, R., McManus, I.C., Riley, H., Rankin, Q., & Brunswick, N. (2013). Local processing enhancements associated with superior observational drawing are due to enhanced perceptual functioning, not weak central coherence. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66(7), 14481466. PubMed ID: 23234461 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chamberlain, R., & Wagemans, J. (2015). Visual arts training is linked to flexible attention to local and global levels of visual stimuli. Acta Psychologica, 161(4), 185197. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Choi, B., Leech, K.A., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Nelson, C.A. (2018). Development of fine motor skills is associated with expressive language outcomes in infants at high and low risk for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 10(1), 14. PubMed ID: 29649977 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbetta, D., DiMercurio, A., Wiener, R.F., Connell, J.P., & Clark, M. (2018). How perception and action fosters exploration and selection in infant skill acquisition. In J.M. Plumert (Ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (vol. 55, pp. 129). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Danielson, M.L., Bitsko, R.H., Ghandour, R.M., Holbrook, J.R., Kogan, M.D., & Blumberg, S.J. (2018). Prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and associated treatment among U.S. children and adolescents, 2016. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 47(2), 199212. PubMed ID: 29363986 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drake, J.E., Redash, A., Coleman, K., Haimson, J., & Winner, E. (2010). ‘Autistic’ local processing bias also found in children gifted in realistic drawing. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40(6), 762773. PubMed ID: 20049633 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dunn, L., Wheiton, C., & Pintilie, D. (1982). British picture vocabulary scale. Windsor, Canada: NFER-Nelson.

  • DuPaul, G.J., Power, T.J., Anastopoulos, A.D., & Reid, R. (1998). ADHD rating scale-IV: Checklists, norms, and clinical interpretations. New York, NY: Guildford.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eames, K., & Cox, M.V. (1994). Visual realism in the drawings of autistic, Down’s syndrome and normal children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 12(2), 235239. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Elman, J.L., Bates, E.A., Johnson, M.H., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (1996). Rethinking innateness. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ferrin, M., & Vance, A. (2012). Examination of neurological subtle signs in ADHD as a clinical tool for the diagnosis and their relationship to spatial working memory. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(4), 390400. PubMed ID: 22141455 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flapper, B.C.T., Houwen, S., & Schoemaker, M.M. (2006). Fine motor skills and effects of methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 48(3), 165169. PubMed ID: 16483390 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fuentes, C.T., Mostofsky, S.H., & Bastian, A.J. (2009). Children with autism show specific handwriting impairments. Neurology, 73(19), 15321537. PubMed ID: 19901244 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gardner, R.A., & Broman, M. (1979). The Purdue Pegboard: Normative data on 1334 school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 8(3), 156162. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Garrido, D., Petrova, D., Watson, L.R., Garcia-Retamero, R., & Carballo, G. (2017). Language and motor skills in siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analytic review. Autism Research, 10(11), 17371750. PubMed ID: 28685955 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Geman, S., Bienenstock, E., & Doursat, R. (1992). Neural networks and the bias/variance dilemma. Neural Computation, 4(1), 158. doi:

  • Ghanizadeh, A., Safavi, S., & Berk, M. (2013). Clock Face Drawing test performance in children with ADHD. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, 4(1), 5056. PubMed ID: 25337328

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goodway, J.D., Ozmun, J.C., & Gallahue, D.L. (2019). Understanding motor development (8th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grice, S.J., Halit, H., Farroni, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Bolton, P., & Johnson, M.H. (2005). Neural correlates of eye-gaze detection in young children with autism. Cortex: A Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior, 41(3), 342353. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Happé, F., & Frith, U. (2006). The weak coherence account: Detail-focused cognitive style in autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36(1), 525. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hartley, C., & Allen, M.L. (2015). Is children’s naming and drawing of pictures mediated by representational intentions? Evidence from typical development and autism. Cognitive Development, 36, 5267. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Im, H.Y., Zhong, S.-H., & Halberda, J. (2016). Grouping by proximity and the visual impression of approximate number in random dot arrays. Vision Research, 126, 291307. PubMed ID: 26386344 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaiser, M.L., Schoemaker, M.M., Albaret, J.M., & Geuze, R.H. (2015). What is the evidence of impaired motor skills and motor control among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Systematic review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 36, 338357. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koldewyn, K., Jiang, Y.V., Weigelt, S., & Kanwisher, N. (2013). Global/local processing in autism: Not a disability, but a disinclination. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(10), 23292340. PubMed ID: 23378063 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C. (1997). Development of size modification of human figure drawings in spatial axes systems of varying complexity. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 66(2), 264278. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C. (1998). Pressure, velocity and time in speeded drawing of basic graphic pattern by young children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86(Suppl. 3), 12991310. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C. (2004). More evidence on size modification in spatial axes systems of varying complexity. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88(2), 171192. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C. (2006). Drawing boundaries: From individual to common region – the development of spatial region attribution in children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24(2), 419427. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C. (2009). Habitual size and projective size: The logic of spatial systems in children’s drawings. Developmental Psychology, 45(4), 913927. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C. (2010a). Gender-specific developmental pathways for boys and girls: The Wertheimer Common-Region-Test can predict spatial memory. European Journal of Developmental Science, 4(1), 4666. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C. (2010b). Ready-made and self-made facilitation effects of arrays: Priming and conceptualization in children’s visual memory. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 69(4), 189200. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C. (2011). Sex differences in visual realism in drawings of animate and inanimate objects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 113(2), 439453. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C. (2013). Array effects, spatial concepts, or information processing speed: What is the crucial variable for place learning? Swiss Journal of Psychology, 72(4), 197217. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C., & Ebersbach, M. (2013). Girls in detail, boys in shape: Gender differences when drawing cubes in depth. British Journal of Psychology, 104(3), 413437. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C., Kerzmann, A., & Heckhausen, J. (2002). The emergence of visually realistic contour in the drawing of the human figure. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20(3), 439463. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C., & Küttner, E. (2015). How to learn places without spatial concepts: Does the what-and-where reaction time system in children regulate learning during stimulus repetition? Brain and Cognition, 97, 5973. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C., Küttner, E., & Chromekova, M. (2014). Deterioration and recovery of DAP IQ scores in the repeated assessment of the Naglieri Draw-A-Person (DAP) test in 6- to 12-year-old children. Psychological Assessment, 26(1), 297306. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lange-Küttner, C., & Thomas, G.V. (Eds.). (1995). Drawing and looking. Theoretical approaches to pictorial representation in children. Hemel Hempstead, UK: Harvester Wheatsheaf/Pearson.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liotti, M., Pliszka, S.R., Perez, R., Kothmann, D., & Woldorff, M.G. (2005). Abnormal brain activity related to performance monitoring and error detection in children with ADHD. Cortex, 41(3), 377388. PubMed ID: 15871602 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loomes, R., Hull, L., & Mandy, W.P.L. (2017). What is the male-to-female ratio in autism spectrum disorder? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56(6), 466474. PubMed ID: 28545751 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lyall, K., Croen, L., Daniels, J., Fallin, M.D., Ladd-Acosta, C., Lee, B.K., … Newschaffer, C. (2017). The changing epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders. Annual Review of Public Health, 38(1), 81102. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marcet, A., & Perea, M. (2018). Can I order a burger at rnacdonalds.com? Visual similarity effects of multi-letter combinations at the early stages of word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 44(5), 699706. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, P., & Ropar, D. (2004). Visuo-spatial abilities in autism: A review. Infant and Child Development, 13(3), 185198. doi:

  • Morra, S. (2002). On the relationship between partial occlusion drawing, M capacity, and field independence. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20(3), 421438. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Naglieri, J.A. (1988). Draw a person: A quantitative scoring systemSan Antonio, TXPsychological Corporation.

  • Palmer, S.E. (1992). Common region: A new principle of perceptual grouping. Cognitive Psychology, 24(3), 436447. PubMed ID: 1516361 doi:

  • Palmer, S.E. (1999). Vision science: Photons to phenomenology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  • Pascual-Leone, J. (1989). An organismic process model of Witkin’s field-dependence-independence. In T. Globerson& T. Zelniker (Eds.), Cognitive style and cognitive development (pp. 3670). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perets-Dubrovsky, S., Kaveh, M., Deutsh-Castel, T., Cohen, A., & Tirosh, E. (2010). The human figure drawing as related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Neurology, 25(6), 689693. PubMed ID: 20332384 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Piaget, J. (1969). The mechanisms of perception. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

  • Plaisted, K.C. (2001). Reduced generalization in autism: An alternative to weak central coherence. In J.A. Burack, T. Charman, N. Yirmiya, & P.R. Zelazo (Eds.), The development of autism: Perspectives from theory and research. (pp. 149169). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poole, J.L., Burtner, P.A., Torres, T.A., McMullen, C.K., Markham, A., Marcum, M.L., … Qualls, C. (2005). Measuring dexterity in children using the nine-hole peg test. Journal of Hand Therapy, 18(3), 348351. PubMed ID: 16059856 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Raven, J.C. (1998). Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices. London, UK: Pearson.

  • Robinson, T., & Tripp, G. (2013). Neuropsychological functioning in children with ADHD: Symptom persistence is linked to poorer performance on measures of executive and nonexecutive function. Japanese Psychological Research, 55(2), 154167. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ropar, D., & Mitchell, P. (2001). Susceptibility to illusions and performance on visuospatial tasks in individuals with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(4), 539549. PubMed ID: 11383970 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schopler, E., Van Bourgondien, M.E., Wellman, G.J., & Love, S.R. (2011). CARS II Childhood Autism Rating Scale. Torrance, CA: Western Psychological Services.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schuck, S.E.B., & Crinella, F.M. (2005). Why children with ADHD do not have low IQs. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(3), 262280. PubMed ID: 15940963 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Selfe, L. (1977). Nadia - A case of extraordinary drawing ability in an autistic child. London, UK: Academic Press.

  • Simermeyer, J.L., & Ketcham, C.J. (2015). Motor planning and end-state comfort in children with autism spectrum disorder. Autism, 5(1), 14. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simmons, D.R., Robertson, A.E., McKay, L.S., Toal, E., McAleer, P., & Pollick, F.E. (2009). Vision in autism spectrum disorders. Vision Research, 49(22), 27052739. PubMed ID: 19682485 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Simpson, A., Al Ruwaili, R., Jolley, R., Leonard, H., Geeraert, N., & Riggs, K.J. (2019). Fine motor control underlies the association between response inhibition and drawing skill in early development. Child Development, 90(3), 911923. PubMed ID: 28902393 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Song, Y., & Hakoda, Y. (2012). The interference of local over global information processing in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder of the inattentive type. Brain and Development, 34(4), 308317. PubMed ID: 21862271 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tabatabaey-Mashadi, N., Sudirman, R., Khalid, P.I., & Lange-Küttner, C. (2015). Automated syntax analyses of drawing two tangent patterns in children with low and average handwriting ability. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 120(3), 865894. PubMed ID: 26029964 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tirosh, E., Perets-Dubrovsky, S., Davidovitch, M., & Hocherman, S. (2006). Visuomotor tracking related to Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Journal of Child Neurology, 21(6), 502507. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Abswoude, F., Van der Kamp, J., & Steenbergen, B. (2019). The roles of declarative knowledge and working memory in explicit motor learning and practice among children with low motor abilities. Motor Control, 23(1), 3451. PubMed ID: 30012053 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vinter, A., & Detable, C. (2008). Implicit and explicit motor learning in children with and without Down’s syndrome. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26(4), 507523. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitwell, R.L., Buckingham, G., Enns, J.T., Chouinard, P.A., & Goodale, M.A. (2016). Rapid decrement in the effects of the Ponzo display dissociates action and perception. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(4), 11571163. PubMed ID: 26555756 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whyatt, C.P., & Craig, C.M. (2012). Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 42(9), 17991809. PubMed ID: 22180003 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wichstrøm, L., Berg-Nielsen, T.S., Angold, A., Egger, H.L., Solheim, E., & Sveen, T.H. (2012). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(6), 695705. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Willcock, E., Imuta, K., & Hayne, H. (2011). Children’s human figure drawings do not measure intellectual ability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110(3), 444452. PubMed ID: 21620415 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yu, T.-Y., Chou, W., Chow, J.C., Lin, C.-H., Tung, L.-C., & Chen, K.-L. (2018). IQ discrepancy differentiates levels of fine motor skills and their relationship in children with autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 14, 597605. PubMed ID: 29503543 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziereis, S., & Jansen, P. (2015). Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 181191. PubMed ID: 25561359 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 155 155 34
Full Text Views 0 0 0
PDF Downloads 0 0 0