Adiposity and Slow Stepping Rate Are Related to Under-Estimating Steps per Day in African American Women

in Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $37.00

1 year subscription

USD  $50.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $71.00

2 year subscription

USD  $93.00

Purpose: The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to determine if the Digi-Walker SW-200 (SW-200), New Lifestyles NL-2000 (NL-2000), and Omron HJ-303 (HJ-303) yield similar daily step counts compared to the StepWatch-3; and (2) to determine if pedometer error is influenced by adiposity and/or stepping rate in African American women. Methods: 60 participants (28.0 ± 9.8 y) wore the devices for three weekdays. ANOVAs were performed to determine if body mass index (BMI) and device were related to steps per day, and to determine if BMI and device were related to error. Stepwise linear regressions were performed to determine which variables contributed to pedometer error. Results: StepWatch-3 counted significantly more steps than all other devices within each BMI category (p < .01). The NL-2000 had significantly less error in the normal (−13.4%) and overweight (−14.9%) groups compared to the SW-200 (−26.2% and −33.3%) and HJ-303 (−32.5% ad −31.5%) (p < .05). The SW-200 had significantly more error in the obese group (−50.7%) compared to the NL-2000 (−17.1%) and HJ-303 (−26.0%) (p < .05). NL-2000 error was not related to any variables while the SW-200 error was related to waist circumference (WC) and the HJ-303 error was related to percentage of slow steps. Conclusion: In African American women adiposity is more strongly related to more pedometer error in a device using a spring-levered mechanism (SW-200). Accumulating steps at a slow rate is related to more pedometer error when using a device with a step filter (HJ-303).

Tyo is with the Department of Kinesiology and Health Sciences; Spataro-Kearns is with the College of Education and Health Professions; Columbus State University, Columbus, GA. Bassett is with the Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, and Sport Studies, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville.

Tyo (tyo_brian@columbusstate.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Banks-Wallace, J., & Conn, V. (2002). Interventions to promote physical activity among African American women. Public Health Nursing, 19(5), 321335. PubMed ID: 12182692

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bassett, D.R., Jr., Wyatt, H.R., Thompson, H., Peters, J.C., & Hill, J.O. (2010). Pedometer-measured physical activity and health behaviors in U.S. adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 42(10), 18191825. PubMed ID: 20305579 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181dc2e54

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beydoun, M.A., & Wang, Y. (2009). Gender-ethnic disparity in BMI and waist circumference distribution shifts in US adults. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17(1), 169176. PubMed ID: 19107129 doi:10.1038/oby.2008.492

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crouter, S.E., Schneider, P.L., & Bassett, D.R., Jr. (2005). Spring-levered versus piezo-electric pedometer accuracy in overweight and obese adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37(10), 16731679. PubMed ID: 16260966

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feito, Y., Bassett, D.R., & Thompson, D.L. (2012). Evaluation of activity monitors in controlled and free-living environments. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 44(4), 733741. PubMed ID: 21904249 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182351913

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feito, Y., Bassett, D.R., Thompson, D.L., & Tyo, B.M. (2012). Effects of body mass index on step count accuracy of physical activity monitors. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 9(4), 594600. PubMed ID: 21946229

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Flegal, K.M., Kruszon-Moran, D., Carroll, M.D., Fryar, C.D., & Ogden, C.L. (2016). Trends in Obesity Among Adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA, 315(21), 22842291. PubMed ID: 27272580 doi:10.1001/jama.2016.6458

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hickey, A., John, D., Sasaki, J.E., Mavilia, M., & Freedson, P. (2016). Validity of Activity Monitor Step Detection Is Related to Movement Patterns. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 13(2), 145153. PubMed ID: 26107045 doi:10.1123/jpah.2015-0203

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hornbuckle, L.M., Bassett, D.R., Jr., & Thompson, D.L. (2005). Pedometer-determined walking and body composition variables in African-American women. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 37(6), 10691074. PubMed ID: 15947735

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karabulut, M., Crouter, S.E., & Bassett, D.R., Jr. (2005). Comparison of two waist-mounted and two ankle-mounted electronic pedometers. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 95(4), 335343. PubMed ID: 16132120 doi:10.1007/s00421-005-0018-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ladabaum, U., Mannalithara, A., Myer, P.A., & Singh, G. (2014). Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, Physical Activity, and Caloric Intake in U.S. Adults: 1988–2010. The American Journal of Medicine, 127(8), 717727. PubMed ID: 24631411 doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.02.026

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marsh, A.P., Vance, R.M., Frederick, T.L., Hesselmann, S.A., & Rejeski, W.J. (2007). Objective assessment of activity in older adults at risk for mobility disability. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(6), 10201026. PubMed ID: 17545894 doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e3180423ac3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Melanson, E.L., Knoll, J.R., Bell, M.L., Donahoo, W.T., Hill, J.O., Nysse, L.J., . . . Levine, J.A. (2004). Commercially available pedometers: considerations for accurate step counting. Preventive Medicine, 39(2), 361368. PubMed ID: 15226047 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.01.032

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Newton, R.L., Jr., Han, H., Johnson, W.D., Hickson, D.A., Church, T.S., Taylor, H.A., . . . Dubbert, P.M. (2013). Steps/day and metabolic syndrome in African American adults: the Jackson Heart Study. Preventive Medicine, 57(6), 855859. PubMed ID: 24096141 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.09.018

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Kit, B.K., & Flegal, K.M. (2014). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA, 311(8), 806814. PubMed ID: 24570244 doi:10.1001/jama.2014.732

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panton, L.B., Kushnick, M.R., Kingsley, J.D., Moffatt, R.J., Haymes, E.M., & Toole, T. (2007). Pedometer measurement of physical activity and chronic disease risk factors of obese lower socioeconomic status African American women. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 4(4), 447458. PubMed ID: 18209235

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneider, P.L., Bassett, D.R., Jr., Thompson, D.L., Pronk, N.P., & Bielak, K.M. (2006). Effects of a 10,000 steps per day goal in overweight adults. American Journal of Health Promotion, 21(2), 8589. PubMed ID: 17152246

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shepherd, E.F., Toloza, E., McClung, C.D., & Schmalzried, T.P. (1999). Step activity monitor: increased accuracy in quantifying ambulatory activity. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 17(5), 703708. PubMed ID: 10569479 doi:10.1002/jor.1100170512

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steeves, J.A., Tyo, B.M., Connolly, C.P., Gregory, D.A., Stark, N.A., & Bassett, D.R. (2011). Validity and reliability of the Omron HJ-303 tri-axial accelerometer-based pedometer. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8(7), 10141020. PubMed ID: 21885893

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Storti, K.L., Pettee, K.K., Brach, J.S., Talkowski, J.B., Richardson, C.R., & Kriska, A.M. (2008). Gait speed and step-count monitor accuracy in community-dwelling older adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 40(1), 5964. PubMed ID: 18091020 doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e318158b504

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Swartz, A.M., Bassett, D.R., Jr., Moore, J.B., Thompson, D.L., & Strath, S.J. (2003). Effects of body mass index on the accuracy of an electronic pedometer. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24(8), 588592. PubMed ID: 14598195 doi:10.1055/s-2003-43272

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Toth, L.P., Park, S., Springer, C.M., Feyerabend, M.D., Steeves, J.A., & Bassett, D.R. (2018). Video-recorded validation of wearable step counters under free-living conditions. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 50(6), 13151322. PubMed ID: 29381649 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001569

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tudor-Locke, C., & Bassett, D.R., Jr. (2004). How many steps/day are enough? Preliminary pedometer indices for public health. Sports Medicine, 34(1), 18. PubMed ID: 14715035

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tyo, B.M., Bassett, D.R., Jr., Coe, D.P., Feito, Y., & Thompson, D.L. (2013). Effect of BMI on pedometers in early adolescents under free-living conditions. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 45(3), 569573. PubMed ID: 23034640 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182746aa5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tyo, B.M., Fitzhugh, E.C., Bassett, D.R., Jr., John, D., Feito, Y., & Thompson, D.L. (2011). Effects of body mass index and step rate on pedometer error in a free-living environment. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(2), 350356. PubMed ID: 20543755 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e9b133

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitt, M.C., DuBose, K.D., Ainsworth, B.E., & Tudor-Locke, C. (2004). Walking patterns in a sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian women: the cross-cultural activity participation study. Health Education and Behavior, 31(Suppl. 4), 45S56S. PubMed ID: 15296691 doi:10.1177/1090198104266034

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitt-Glover, M.C., Brand, D.J., Turner, M.E., Ward, S.A., & Jackson, E.M. (2009). Increasing physical activity among African-American women and girls. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 8(6), 318324. PubMed ID: 19904072 doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181c27ade

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitt-Glover, M.C., Hogan, P.E., Lang, W., & Heil, D.P. (2008). Pilot study of a faith-based physical activity program among sedentary blacks. Preventing Chronic Disease, 5(2), A51. PubMed ID: 18341786

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 217 217 4
Full Text Views 4 4 1
PDF Downloads 3 3 0