Shuteye Time Compared With Bedtime: Misclassification of Sleep in Adolescent Females

in Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour
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  • 1 University of Otago
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Short sleep duration is associated with poorer outcomes for adolescents; however, sleep duration is often assessed (either by questionnaire or device) using self-reported bedtime (i.e., the time a person goes to bed). With sedentary activities, such as screen time, being common presleep in-bed behaviors, the use of “bedtime” may introduce error to the estimates of sleep duration. It has been proposed that self-reported “shuteye time” (i.e., the time a person starts trying to go to sleep) is used instead of bedtime. This study aimed to compare the bedtimes and shuteye times of a sample of 15- to 18-year-old female adolescents recruited from 13 high schools across New Zealand. The influence on sleep duration estimates and associations with healthy lifestyle habits was also examined. Sleep data were collected from 136 participants using actigraphy and self-report. On average, 52 min (95% confidence interval [43, 60] min) of sedentary time was misclassified as sleep when bedtime was used instead of shuteye time with actigraph data. Mean bedtimes on weekdays and weekends were 9:56 p.m. (SD = 58 min) and 10:40 p.m. (SD = 77 min), respectively. The relationship between bedtime and shuteye time was not linear—indicating that bedtime cannot be used as a proxy for shuteye time. Earlier shuteye times were more strongly associated with meeting fruit and vegetable intake and sleep and physical activity guidelines than earlier bedtimes. Using bedtime instead of shuteye time to estimate sleep duration may introduce substantial error to estimates of both sleep and sedentary time.

The authors are with the Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Haszard (jill.haszard@otago.ac.nz) is corresponding author.
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