Translation of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to Maltese and Reliability Testing

in Journal for the Measurement of Physical Behaviour
View More View Less
  • 1 Coventry University
  • 2 University of Lincoln
  • 3 University of Malta
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $38.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $51.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $73.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $97.00

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is a widely used self-reported physical activity (PA) measure developed to allow for international cross-country comparisons. Due to its unavailability, the aim of this study was to translate the IPAQ-long to Maltese and undertake reliability testing. The IPAQ-long English version was translated into Maltese following the IPAQ guidelines, which included backwards translation. Maltese-speaking participants, aged between 18 and 69 years, were recruited through convenience sampling (n = 170). Participants completed the IPAQ-long twice within an 8- to 48-hr period. PA was calculated in MET minutes per week, and reliability was calculated using the Spearman correlation, intraclass correlation coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient, and Bland–Altman plots. A total of 155 participants completed the questionnaire at two time points. Spearman correlation was .83 (.76–.88) for total PA and .84 (.77–.89) for total sitting time. The intraclass correlation coefficient was .83 (.76–.88) and the concordance correlation coefficient was .75–.87 for total PA. The lowest reliability was for total transport, with a concordance correlation coefficient of .21−.45. Bland–Altman plots highlight that 95% of the differences fell within 2 SDs from the mean. Since the Maltese IPAQ-long has similar reliability to the English version, the authors recommend that health care professionals and PA practitioners use this tool when examining population-level PA among Maltese-speaking individuals.

Spiteri is with the Faculty Research Centre for Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences, Coventry University, United Kingdom; and the Ministry for Senior Citizens and Active Ageing, Malta. Grafton is with the School of Health & Social Care, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom. Xerri de Caro is with the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta, Msida, Malta. Broom is with the Faculty Research Centre for Sport, Exercise and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom.

Spiteri (spiterik2@coventry.ac.uk) is corresponding author.

Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary Material 1 (pdf 417 KB)
    • Supplementary Material 2 (pdf 475 KB)
  • Altman, D.G., & Bland, J. (1986). Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. The Lancet, 327(8476), 307310. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673686908378

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bauman, A., Ainsworth, B.E., Bull, F., Craig, C.L., Hagströmer, M., Sallis, J.F., … Sjöström, M. (2009). Progress and pitfalls in the use of the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) for adult physical activity surveillance. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 6(Suppl. 1), S5S8. Retrieved from http://journals.humankinetics.com/AcuCustom/Sitename/Documents/DocumentItem/17424.pdf doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Behling, O., & Law, K.S. (2011). Translating Questionnaires and Other Research Instruments. California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

  • Bergman, P. (2018). The number of repeated observations needed to estimate the habitual physical activity of an individual to a given level of precision. Plos One, 13(2), e0192117e0192117. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergman, P., & Hagströmer, M. (2020). No one accelerometer-based physical activity data collection protocol can fit all research questions. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 20(1), 18. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bruton, A., Conway, J.H., & Holgate, S.T. (2000). Reliability: What is it, and how is it measured? Physiotherapy, 86(2), 9499. doi:.

  • Chu, A.H.Y., & Moy, F.M. (2015). Reliability and validity of the malay international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ-M) among a Malay population in Malaysia. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, 27(2), NP2381NP2389. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Craig, C.L., Marshall, A.L., Sjöström, M., Bauman, A.E., Booth, M.L., Ainsworth, B.E., … Oja, P. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-Country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(8), 13811395. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Doma, K., Speyer, R., Leicht, A.S., & Cordier, R. (2017). Comparison of psychometric properties between usual-week and past-week self-reported physical activity questionnaires: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 10. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dowd, K.P., Szeklicki, R., Minetto, M.A., Murphy, M.H., Polito, A., Ghigo, E., … Donnelly, A.E. (2018). A systematic literature review of reviews on techniques for physical activity measurement in adults: A DEDIPAC study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15(1), 15. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grey, D. (2015). Conducting Cognitive Interviews. SAGE Publications Ltd. doi:

  • Gropper, H., John, J.M., Sudeck, G., & Thiel, A. (2020). The impact of life events and transitions on physical activity: A scoping review. PloS One, 15(6), e0234794. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hallal, P.C., Gomez, L.F., Parra, D.C., Lobelo, F., Mosquera, J., Florindo, A., … Sarmiento, O.L. (2010). Lessons learned after 10 years of IPAQ use in Brazil and Colombia. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 7(Suppl. 2), S259S264. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Helmerhorst, H.J.F., Brage, S., Warren, J., Besson, H., & Ekelund, U. (2012). A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(1), 103. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Helou, K., El Helou, N., Mahfouz, M., Mahfouz, Y., Salameh, P., & Harmouche-Karaki, M. (2017). Validity and reliability of an adapted Arabic version of the long international physical activity questionnaire. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 18. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henrica, C.W.de.V. (2011). Measurement in medicine a practical guide (first). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • IPAQ group. (2019). IPAQ. Retrieved from https://sites.google.com/site/theipaq/questionnaire_links

  • Kalvenas, A., Burlacu, I., & Abu-Omar, K. (2016). Reliability and validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in Lithuania. Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity, 8(2), 2941. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, P., Fitzsimons, C., & Baker, G. (2016). Should we reframe how we think about physical activity and sedentary behaviour measurement? Validity and reliability reconsidered. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 13(1), 110. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koo, T.K., & Li, M.Y. (2016). A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 15(2), 155163. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kottner, J., Audige, L., Brorson, S., Donner, A., Gajewski, B.J., Hróbjartsson, A., … Streiner, D.L. (2011). Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies (GRRAS) were proposed. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48(6), 661671. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kwak, L., Hagströmer, M., & Sjostrom, M. (2012). Can the IPAQ-long be used to assess occupational physical activity? Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 9(8), 11301137. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lee, I.M., Shiroma, E.J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S.N., Katzmarzyk, P.T., … Wells, J.C. (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: An analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. The Lancet, 380(9838), 219229. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Liu, J., Tang, W., Chen, G., Lu, Y., Feng, C., & Tu, X.M. (2016). Correlation and agreement: Overview and clarification of competing concepts and measures. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 28(2), 115120. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Loney, T., Standage, M., Thompson, D., Sebire, S.J., & Cumming, S. (2011). Self-report vs. objectively assessed physical activity: Which is right for public health? Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 8(1), 6270. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MacFarlane, D., Chan, A., & Cerin, E. (2011). Examining the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, long form (IPAQ-LC). Public Health Nutrition, 14(3), 443450. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mannocci, A., Bontempi, C., Colamesta, V., Ferretti, F., Giraldi, G., Lombardi, A., … La Torre, G. (2014). Reliability of the telephone-administered international physical activity questionnaire in an Italian pilot sample. Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health, 11(1), 19. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milanovic, Z., Pantelic, S., Trajkovic, N., Jorgic, B., Sporis, G., & Bratic, M. (2014). Reliability of the Serbian version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for older adults. Clinical Intervention, 4(9), 580587. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nordman, M., Matthiessen, J., Biltoft-Jensen, A., Ritz, C., & Hjorth, M.F. (2020). Weekly variation in diet and physical activity among 4—75-year-old Danes. Public Health Nutrition, 23(8), 13501361. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Oyeyemi, A.L., Bello, U.M., Philemon, S.T., Aliyu, H.N., Majidadi, R.W., & Oyeyemi, A.Y. (2014). Examining the reliability and validity of a modified version of the international physical activity questionnaire, long form (IPAQ-LF) in Nigeria: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 4(12), e00582011. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pedišić, Ž., Jurakić, D., Rakovac, M., Hodak, D., & Dizdar, D. (2011). Reliability of the Croatian long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Kinesiology, 43(2), 185191.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2018). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee scientific report. Washington DC. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roman-Viñas, B., Serra-Majem, L., Hagströmer, M., Ribas-Barba, L., Sjöström, M., & Segura-Cardona, R. (2010). International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Reliability and validity in a Spanish population. European Journal of Sport Science, 10(5), 297304. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rütten, A., Vuillemin, A., Ooijendijk, W., Schena, F., Sjöström, M., Stahl, T., … Ziemainz, H. (2003). Physical activity monitoring in Europe. The European Physical Activity Surveillance System (EUPASS) approach and indicator testing. Public Health Nutrition, 6(4), 377384. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sebastião, E., Gobbi, S., Chodzko-Zajko, W., Schwingel, A., Papini, C.B., Nakamura, P.M., … Kokubun, E. (2012). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form overestimates self-reported physical activity of Brazilian adults. Public Health, 126(11), 967975. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Silsbury, Z., Goldsmith, R., & Rushton, A. (2015). Systematic review of the measurement properties of self-report physical activity questionnaires in healthy adult populations. BMJ Open, 5(9), e00843010. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sim, J., & Wright, C.C. (2005). The kappa statistic in reliability studies: Use, interpretation, and sample size requirements. Physical Therapy, 85(3), 257268. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sjöström, M., Oja, P., Hagströmer, M., Smith, B.J., & Bauman, A. (2006). Health-enhancing physical activity across European Union countries: The Eurobarometer study. Journal of Public Health, 14(5), 291300. doi:.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Steene-Johannessen, J., Anderssen, S.A., van der Ploeg, H.P., Hendriksen, I.J., Donnelly, A.E., Brage, S., & Ekelund, U. (2018). Are self-report measures able to define individuals as physically active or inactive? Med Sci Sports Exerc, 48(2), 235244. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Streiner, D., Norman, G.R., & Cairne, J. (2015). Health measurement scales a practical guide to their development and use (Fifth). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thompson, D.J.M., & Wesolowski, B. (2018). Standard Error of Measurement. In Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (pp. 15881590). Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Troiano, R.P., McClain, J.J., Brychta, R.J., & Chen, K. (2014). Evolution of accelerometer methods for physical activity research. Br J Sports Med, 48(13), 10191023. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Troiano, R.P., Pettee Gabriel, K.K., Welk, G.J., Owen, N., & Sternfeld, B. (2012). Reported physical activity and sedentary behavior: Why do you ask? Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 9(suppl 1), S68S75. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UK Chief Medical Officers. (2019). UK Chief Medical Officers’ Physical Activity Guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/physical-activity-guidelines-uk-chief-medical-officers-report

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Walter, S.D., Eliasziw, M., & Donner, A. (1998). Sample size and optimal designs for reliability studies. Statistics in Medicine, 17(1), 101110. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 303 303 230
Full Text Views 4 4 2
PDF Downloads 0 0 0