Prediction of Maximal Oxygen Uptake From a 3-Minute Walk Based on Gender, Age, and Body Composition

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
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The purpose was to develop new maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) prediction models using a perceptually regulated 3-minute walk test.


VO2max was measured with a maximal incremental cycle test in 283 Japanese adults. A 3-minute walk test was conducted at a self-regulated intensity corresponding to ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) 13.


A 3-minute walk distance (3MWD) was significantly related to VO2max (r = .60, P < .001). Three prediction models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2max using data on gender, age, 3MWD, and either BMI [BMI model, multiple correlation coefficients (R) = .78, standard error of estimate (SEE) = 5.26 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1], waist circumference (WC model, R = .80, SEE = 5.04 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1), or body fat percentage (%Fat model, R = .84, SEE = 4.57 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1), suggesting that the %Fat model is the best model [VO2max = 37.501 + 0.463 × Gender (0 = women, 1 = men) – 0.195 × Age – 0.589 × %Fat + 0.053 × 3MWD]. Cross-validation by using the predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) procedures demonstrated a high level of cross-validity of all prediction models.


The new VO2max prediction models are reasonably applicable to estimating VO2max in Japanese adults and represent a quick, low-risk, and convenient means for estimating VO2max in the field.

Cao, Aoyama, and Higuchi are with the Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Tokorozawa, Japan. Miyatake is with the Dept of Hygiene, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, Kita-gun, Japan. Tabata is with the Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Japan.