Evaluating the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model Among Portuguese Elementary Schoolchildren

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
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The Youth Physical Activity Promotion (YPAP) model provides an integrated approach to understanding the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors influencing physical activity (PA) behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an adapted version of the YPAP model for explaining PA among Portuguese schoolchildren.


A random cross-sectional sample of 683 children (8–10 years of age) attending elementary public schools in the north of Portugal completed a detailed survey assessing attraction to PA, perceived physical competence, parental influences and leisure time PA. Structural equation modeling techniques were conducted (EQS6.1).


Attraction to PA was directly associated with children’s PA participation (β = 0.271, P < .05). Perceived physical competence imposed an indirect effect on children’s PA through children’s attraction to PA (β = 0.253, P < .05). Parental influence had an indirect effect on children’s PA through perceived physical competence and attraction to PA (β = 0.318 and 0.662, respectively, P < .05). Perceived physical competence and parental influence were not directly associated with children’s PA (β = 0.069 and 0.180, respectively, P > .05).


The adapted version of YPAP model was useful in explaining PA participation in elementary Portuguese schoolchildren. Intervention programs intended to enhance attraction to PA, perceived physical competence and favorable parental influence should be developed to promote children’s PA participation.

A.C. Seabra, Maia, and Fonseca are with the Dept of Research, Education, Innovation, and Intervention in Sport CIFI2D, Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Portugal. A.F. Seabra is with the Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health, and Leisure (CIAFEL), Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Portugal. Welk is with the Nutrition and Wellness Research Center, Iowa State University, Ames, IA. Brustad is with the College of Natural and Health Sciences, Dept of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO.