Neighborhood Environment and Physical Activity Among Older Women: Findings From the San Diego Cohort of the Women’s Health Initiative

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
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Few studies of older adults have compared environmental correlates of walking and physical activity in women who may be more influenced by the environment. Environmental measures at different spatial levels have seldom been compared. Findings from previous studies are generally inconsistent.


This study investigated the relationship between the built environment and physical activity in older women from the Women’s Health Initiative cohort in San Diego County (N = 5401). Built environment measures were created for 3 buffers around participants’ residential address. Linear regression analyses investigated the relationship between the built environment features and self-reported physical activity and walking.


Total walking was significantly positively associated with the walkability index (β = .050: half-mile buffer), recreation facility density (β = .036: 1-mile buffer), and distance to the coast (β = –.064; P-values < .05). Total physical activity was significantly negatively associated with distance to the coast and positively with recreation facility density (β = .036: 1-mile buffer; P < .05).


Although effect sizes were small, we did find important relationships between walkability and walking in older adults, which supports recommendations for community design features to include age friendly elements. More intense physical activity may occur in recreational settings than neighborhood streets.

Kerr (, Norman, Millstein, Adams, Morgan, and Allison are with the Dept of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA. Langer is with the Dept of Preventive Medicine, Jackson Hole Center for Preventive Medicine, Jackson Hole, WY.