Increase in Daily Steps After an Exercise Specialist Led Lifestyle Intervention for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes in Primary Care: A Controlled Implementation Trial

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $115.00

1 year subscription

USD  $153.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $218.00

2 year subscription

USD  $285.00


To determine the effectiveness of an exercise specialist led lifestyle program for adults with type 2 diabetes in primary care.


Eligible participants from 4 primary care networks in Alberta, Canada were assigned to either a lifestyle program or a control group. The program targeted increased daily walking through individualized daily pedometer step goals for the first 3 months and brisk walking speed, along with substitution of low-relative to high-glycemic index foods over the next 3 months. The outcomes were daily steps, diet, and clinical markers, and were compared using random effects models.


198 participants were enrolled (102 in the intervention and 96 in the control). For all participants, (51% were women), mean age 59.5 (SD 8.3) years, A1c 6.8% (SD 1.1), BMI 33.6 kg/m2 (SD 6.5), systolic BP 125.6 mmHg (SD 16.2), glycemic index 51.7 (4.6), daily steps 5879 (SD 3130). Daily steps increased for the intervention compared with the control at 3-months (1292 [SD 2698] vs. 418 [SD 2458] and 6-months (1481 [SD 2631] vs. 336 [SD 2712]; adjusted P = .002). No significant differences were observed for diet or clinical outcomes.


A 6-month lifestyle program delivered in primary care by an exercise specialist can be effective for increasing daily walking among adults with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. This short-term increase in daily steps requires longer follow-up to estimate the potential impact on health outcomes.

ST Johnson ( is with the Dept of Health Disciplines, Athabasca University, Athabasca, Alberta, Canada. Mundt, Qiu, Soprovich, Wozniak, and JA Johnson are with the School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Plotnikoff is with the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.