Children’s Out-of-School Independently Mobile Trips, Active Travel, and Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Examination from the Kids in the City Study

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
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The study aim was to determine the association between children’s objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and active trips (AT) and independently mobile trips (IM) during out-of-school hours.


Children aged 9 to 13 years (n = 254) were recruited from 9 schools in Auckland, New Zealand between 2011 and 2012. Children completed travel diaries and wore accelerometers for 7 days. Parents provided demographic information. Geographic information systems-derived distance to school was calculated. Accelerometer data were extracted for out of school hours only. Percentage of time spent in MVPA (%MVPA), AT, and IM were calculated. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine the relationship between daily %MVPA and AT and between daily %MVPA and IM, accounting for age, sex, ethnicity, distance to school, day of the week, and numeric day of data collection.


A significant positive relationship was observed between %MVPA and both AT and IM. For every unit increase in the daily percentage of trips made that were AT or IM, we found an average increase of 1.28% (95% CI 0.87%, 1.70%) and 1.15% (95% CI 0.71%, 1.59%) time in MVPA, respectively.


Children’s AT and IM are associated with increased MVPA during out-of-school hours.

Oliver ( and Chaudhury are with the Human Potential Centre, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. Parker, Witten, Donovan, and Mavoa are with SHORE and Whariki Research Centre, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand. Badland is with the McCaughey VicHealth Centre for Community Wellbeing, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Kearns is with the School of Environment, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.