Comparison of Protein-Pacing Alone or Combined With Yoga/Stretching and Resistance Training on Glycemia, Total and Regional Body Composition, and Aerobic Fitness in Overweight Women

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Maxwell Ruby
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Chris P. Repka
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Paul J. Arciero
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Yoga/Stretching (YS) and functional resistance (FR) training are popular exercise routines. A protein-pacing (PP) diet is a common dietary regimen. Thus, we assessed the effectiveness of a PP diet alone and in combination with either YS or FR to improve body composition and cardiometabolic health.


Twenty-seven overweight women (age = 43.2 ± 4.6 years) were randomized into 3 groups: yoga (YS, n = 8) or resistance (FR, n = 10) training (3 days/week) in conjunction with PP diet (50% carbohydrate, 25% protein, and 25% fat) or PP diet-only (PP, n = 9) throughout 12-week study. PP maintained preexisting levels of physical activity. Body weight (BW), total (BF) and abdominal (ABF) body fat, waist circumference (WC), plasma biomarkers, and aerobic fitness (VO2) were measured at baseline and 12 weeks.


WC and total cholesterol improved in all groups, whereas glycemia tended to improve (P = .06) in S. BF, ABF, and VO2 increased significantly in YS and FR (P < .05). Feelings of vigor increased in YS and tension decreased in FR (P < .05).


YS training tended to decrease blood glucose compared with FR and PP and is equally effective at enhancing body composition, and aerobic fitness in overweight women providing a strong rationale for further research on YS training.

Ruby, Repka, and Arciero ( are with the Human Nutrition and Metabolism Laboratory, Dept of Health and Exercise Sciences, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY.

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