Investigating the Physical Activity Behaviors of Canadian Adults Over Time: Multilevel Sex and Age Group Trajectories Across 2 Decades

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $115.00

1 year subscription

USD $153.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $218.00

2 year subscription

USD $285.00

Background: This study explores changes in the leisure-time physical activities of Canadian adults over time. Methods: Using representative panel data from the National Population Health Survey, multilevel analyses of 13,933 respondents aged 18 and older were performed to assess both overall and individual leisure-time physical activity trajectories from 1994 to 2011 and the extent to which these trajectories differ by sex and age groups. Results: With the exception of those aged 65 and older, there is evidence that as Canadians age their overall levels of physical activity increase over time. However, increases in overall physical activity levels are mainly due to increases in walking, gardening, and home exercise. Increases in these 3 activities in particular compensate for declines in engagement levels over time in most other activities. Conclusions: As the demographic shift to an older Canadian population continues, evidence of increasing overall physical activity levels across most age groups in Canada gives reason for optimism.

Perks is with the Dept of Sociology, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.

Perks (thomas.perks@uleth.ca) is corresponding author.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Sallis JF. Age-related decline in physical activity: a synthesis of human and animal studies. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(9):15981600. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005768-200009000-00012

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Troiano RPBerrigan DDodd KWMasse LCTilert TMcDowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(1):181188. PubMed doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31815a51b3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Scheerder JVanreusel BTaks M. Stratification patterns of active sport involvement among adults: social change and persistence. Int Rev Sociol Sport. 2005;40(2):139162. doi:10.1177/1012690205057191

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Craig CLRussell SJCameron CBauman A. Twenty-year trends in physical activity among Canadian adults. Can J Public Health. 2004;95:5963. PubMed doi:10.17269/cjph.95.453

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Borodulin KLaatikainen TJuolevi AJousilahti P. Thirty-year trends of physical activity in relation to age, calendar time and birth cohort in Finnish adults. Eur J Public Health. 2008;18(3):339344. PubMed doi:10.1093/eurpub/ckm092

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Caspersen CJPereira MACurran KM. Changes in physical activity patterns in the United States, by sex and cross-sectional age. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(9):16011609. PubMed doi:10.1111/jgs.12893

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Zick CDSmith KRBrown BBFan JXKowaleski-Jones L. Physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. J Phys Act Health. 2007;4(2):125137. PubMed doi:10.1123/jpah.4.2.125

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Boreham CRobson PJGallagher AMCran GWSavage JMMurray LJ. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: the Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2004;1:14. PubMed doi:10.1186/1479-5868-1-14

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Brodersen NHSteptoe ABoniface DRWardle J. Trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior in adolescence: ethnic and socioeconomic differences. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41(3):140144. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsm.2006.031138

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Cleland VJBall KMagnussen CDwyer TVenn A. Socioeconomic position and the tracking of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness from childhood to adulthood. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;170(9):10691077. PubMed doi:10.1093/aje/kwp271

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Gordon-Larsen PNelson MCPopkin BM. Longitudinal physical activity and sedentary behavior trends: adolescence to adulthood. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27(4):277283. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.07.006.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Herman KMCraig CLGauvin LKatzmarzyk PT. Tracking of obesity and physical activity from childhood to adulthood: the physical activity longitudinal study. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2009;4(4):281288. PubMed doi:10.3109/17477160802596171

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Jones RAHinkley TOkely ASalmon J. Tracking physical activity and sedentary behavior in childhood: a systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2013;44(6):651658. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.03.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Kahn JAHuang BGillman MWet al. Patterns and determinants of physical activity in U.S. adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2008;42(4):369377. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.11.143

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Kjonniksen LTorsheim TWold B. Tracking of leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and young adulthood: a 10-year longitudinal study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5:69. PubMed doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-69

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Kwan MYCairney JFaulkner GEPullenayegum EE. Physical activity and other health-risk behaviors during the transition into early adulthood: a longitudinal cohort study. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(1):1420. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.08.026

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Nelson MCNeumark-Stzainer DHannan PJSirard JRStory M. Longitudinal and secular trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior during adolescence. Pediatrics. 2006;118(6):16271634. PubMed doi:10.1542/peds.2006-0926

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Rauner AJekauc DMess FSchmidt SWoll A. Tracking physical activity in different settings from late childhood to early adulthood in Germany: the MoMo longitudinal study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:391. PubMed doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1731-4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Pate RRDowda MO’Neill JRWard DS. Change in physical activity participation among adolescent girls from 8th to 12th grade. J Phys Act Health. 2007;4(1):316. PubMed doi:10.1123/jpah.4.1.3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Telama RYang XViikari JValimaki IWanne ORaitakari O. Physical activity from childhood to adulthood: a 21-year tracking study. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(3):267273. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.12.003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Anderssen NJacobs DRSideny Set al. Change and secular trends in physical activity patterns in young adults: a seven-year longitudinal follow-up in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). Am J Epidemiol. 1996;143(4):351362. PubMed doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a008749

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Hamer MKivimaki MSteptoe A. Longitudinal patterns in physical activity and sedentary behavior form mid-life to early old age: a substudy of the Whitehall II cohort. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2012;66(12):11101115. PubMed doi:10.1136/jech-2011-200505

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Malina RM. Tracking of physical activity and physical fitness across the lifespan. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1996;67(3):S48S57. doi:10.1080/02701367.1996.10608853

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Telama R. Tracking of physical activity from childhood to adulthood: a review. Obes Facts. 2009;2(3):187195. PubMed doi:10.1159/000222244

  • 25.

    Curtis JWhite PMcPherson B. Age and physical activity among Canadian women and men: findings from longitudinal national survey data. J Aging Phys Activ. 2000;8(1):119. doi:10.1123/japa.8.1.1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Droomers MSchrijvers CTMMackenbach JP. Educational level and decreases in leisure time physical activity: predictors from longitudinal GLOBE study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001;55(8):562568. PubMed doi:10.1136/jech.55.8.562

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Agahi NAhacic KParker MG. Continuity of leisure participation from middle age to old age. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2006;61(6):S340S346. PubMed doi:10.1093/geronb/61.6.S340

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Barnett TAGauvin LCraig CLKatzmarzyk PT. Modifying effects of sex, age, and education on 22-year trajectory of leisure-time physical activity in a Canadian cohort. J Phys Act Health. 2007;4:153166. PubMed doi:10.1123/jpah.4.2.153

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Morseth BJorgensen LEmaus NJacobsen BKWilsgaard T. Tracking of leisure time physical activity during 28 yr in adults: the Tromso study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):12291234. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182084562

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Stamatakis EEkelund UWareham NJ. Temporal trends in physical activity in England: the Health Survey for England 1991 to 2004. Prev Med. 2007;45(6):416423. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.12.014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Singer JDWillett JB. Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis: Modeling Change and Event Occurrence. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2003.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Swain LCatlin GMarie PB. The national population health survey—its longitudinal nature. Health Rep. 1999;10(4):6982. PubMed

  • 33.

    Gilmour H. Physically active Canadians. Health Rep. 2007;18(3):4565. PubMed

  • 34.

    Health Canada. Healthy Canadians 2012: A Federal Report on Comparable Health Indicators. Ottawa, Ontario: Health Canada; 2013.

  • 35.

    Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute. Bulletin 1: Physical Activity Levels of Canadians. Ottawa, Ontario: CFLRI; 2015.

  • 36.

    Coakley JDonnelly P. Sports in Society: Issues and Controversies2nd Canadian ed. Toronto, Ontario: McGraw Hill Ryerson; 2009.

  • 37.

    Raftery AE. Bayesian model selection in social research. Sociol Methodol. 1995;25:111163. doi:10.2307/271063

  • 38.

    Statistics Canada. Taking risks/taking care. Health Rep. 2001;12(3):1120.

  • 39.

    Shaw BALiang JKrause NGallant MMcGeever K. Age differences and social stratification in the long-term trajectories of leisure-time physical activity. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2010;65(6):756766. PubMed doi:10.1093/geronb/gbq073

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Curtis JMcTeer WWhite P. Exploring effects of school sport experiences on sport participation in later life. Sociol Sport J. 1999;16(4):348365. doi:10.1123/ssj.16.4.348

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Charles SCarstensen LL. Social and emotional aging. Annu Rev Psychol. 2010;61(1):383409. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100448

Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 27 27 4
Full Text Views 5 5 1
PDF Downloads 2 2 0
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar