Improvements in Health-Related Quality of Life, Cardio-Metabolic Health, and Fitness in Postmenopausal Women After an Exercise Plus Health Promotion Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
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This study explored multidimensional outcomes that were derived from the adherence to regular exercise among previously sedentary postmenopausal 45 to 64 years old women who engaged in a ~20-week exercise program.


A randomized controlled trial with between-group (intervention and control women) and within-subject measures (baseline, postintervention, and 3-month and 12-month follow-ups) was conducted. HRQoL and several indicators of cardio-metabolic status and fitness were assessed.


After the intervention, the participants experienced a positive change in their short and long-term physical and mental health, with significant enhancements in several HRQoL dimensions, particularly mental well-being (23.3% of change) and menopause-related health and subdomains (17.0% of change) (P < .01). Improvements were maintained or continued (eg, mental well-being) overtime. These outcomes were accompanied by significant improvements in cardio-metabolic status and fitness, including weight, BMI, cardio-respiratory fitness and flexibility (up to 16.2% of change, P < .05). After the intervention, the intervention group exhibited better HRQoL than the control group at each of the measurement phases. Between-group differences were also observed for some indicators of cardiovascular health and flexibility.


Our findings add evidence on the association of positive outcomes on HRQoL with improvements in cardio-metabolic health and fitness status after the adoption of an active lifestyle.

Vélez-Toral, Godoy-Izquierdo, and Godoy García are with the Health Psychology & Behavioural Medicine Research Group (CTS-267), Facultad de Psicología, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Vélez-Toral is also with the Departamento de Psicología Social, Evolutiva y de la Educación, Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación, Universidad de Huelva; Godoy-Izquierdo and Godoy García are also with the Departamento de Personalidad, Evaluación y Tratamiento Psicológico, Facultad de Psicología, University of Granada, Granada, Spain. Mendoza Ladrón de Guevara and Salamanca Ballesteros are with the Departamento de Ginecología y Obstetricia, Facultad de Medicina. University of Granada, Granada, Spain. de Teresa Galván is with the Centro Andaluz de Medicina del Deporte, Consejería de Cultura y Deporte, Hospital Universitario San Juan de Dios, Granada, Spain.

Godoy-Izquierdo ( is corresponding author.