Development of Physical Activity–Related Parenting Practices Scales for Urban Chinese Parents of Preschoolers: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Reliability

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
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Background:

Valid instruments of parenting practices related to children’s physical activity (PA) are essential to understand how parents affect preschoolers’ PA. This study developed and validated a questionnaire of PA-related parenting practices for Chinese-speaking parents of preschoolers in Hong Kong.

Methods:

Parents (n = 394) completed a questionnaire developed using findings from formative qualitative research and literature searches. Test-retest reliability was determined on a subsample (n = 61). Factorial validity was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis. Subscale internal consistency was determined.

Results:

The scale of parenting practices encouraging PA comprised 2 latent factors: Modeling, structure and participatory engagement in PA (23 items), and Provision of appropriate places for child’s PA (4 items). The scale of parenting practices discouraging PA scale encompassed 4 latent factors: Safety concern/overprotection (6 items), Psychological/behavioral control (5 items), Promoting inactivity (4 items), and Promoting screen time (2 items). Test-retest reliabilities were moderate to excellent (0.58 to 0.82), and internal subscale reliabilities were acceptable (0.63 to 0.89).

Conclusion:

We developed a theory-based questionnaire for assessing PA-related parenting practices among Chinese-speaking parents of Hong Kong preschoolers. While some items were context and culture specific, many were similar to those previously found in other populations, indicating a degree of construct generalizability across cultures.

Suen is with the School of Nursing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Cerin and Barnett are with the Institute for Health and Ageing, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia. Cerin is also with the School of Public Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Huang is with Dept of Physical Education, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China. Mellecker is with Dept of Sports Science and Physical Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Cerin (ecerin@hku.hk; ester.cerin@deakin.edu.au) is corresponding author.