Effects of Psychological Inoculation Versus Health Education on Physical Activity: Two Randomized Controlled Studies

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $115.00

1 year subscription

USD  $153.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $218.00

2 year subscription

USD  $285.00

Background: Effects of health education (HE) on physical activity (PA) are limited. Also, HE fails to address people’s personal barriers and social pressures. In contrast, “psychological inoculation” (PI) targets both topics. This research examined the effects of PI versus HE on PA-related barriers and on self-reported PA in 2 studies. Methods: Randomized controlled trials were employed. Study 1 (N = 20) took place in Britain, while study 2 (N = 40) in Belgium, with nonphysically active participants. PI exposed people to challenging sentences reflecting barriers concerning PA, which they had to refute. In study 1, PA barriers and self-reported PA levels were assessed before and a week after interventions. In study 2, the degree of refuting challenging sentences was estimated and the level of PA was assessed before and 2 months after interventions. Results: In study 1, in the PI condition alone, PA barriers significantly decreased and self-reported PA increased. Change in barriers correlated with posttreatment PA. In study 2, PA increased only in the PI group. Level of rejecting challenging sentences predicted PA later. Most group differences remained when controlling for baseline measures. Conclusions: PI is more effective than HE for increasing PA, and reducing its barriers is essential for this.

Dorling is with Wessex Institute, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Blervacq is with the Dept of Environment and Prevention, High University of Brussels (HUB), Brussels, Belgium. Gidron is with Scalab, University of Lille 3, Lille, France. 

Gidron (yori.gidron@univ-lille3.fr) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Kruk J. Physical activity in the prevention of the most frequent chronic diseases: an analysis of the recent evidence. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2007;8(3):325. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Newton RU, Galvao DA. Exercise in prevention and management of cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2008;9(2):135146. doi:10.1007/s11864-008-0065-1

  • 3.

    Ibrahim EM, Al-Homaidh A. Physical activity and survival after breast cancer diagnosis: meta-analysis of published studies. Med Oncol. 2011;28(3):753765. doi:10.1007/s12032-010-9536-x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Blair SN, Kohl HW, Gordon NF, Paffenbarger RS Jr. How much physical activity is good for health? Annu Rev Public Health. 1992;13(1):99126. doi:10.1146/annurev.pu.13.050192.000531

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Rogers CJ, Colbert LH, Greiner JW, Perkins SN, Hursting SD. Physical activity and cancer prevention: pathways and targets for intervention. Sports Med. 2008;38(4):271296. PubMed doi:10.2165/00007256-200838040-00002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    De Couck M, Mravec B, Gidron Y. You may need the vagus nerve to understand pathophysiology and to treat diseases. Clin Sci. 2012;122(7):323328. PubMed doi:10.1042/CS20110299

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Vazzana N, Santilli F, Sestili S, Cuccurullo C, Davi G. Determinants of increased cardiovascular disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18(34):52675280. PubMed doi:10.2174/092986711798184299

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Lithgow D, Covington C. Chronic inflammation and breast pathology: a theoretical model. Biol Res Nurs. 2005;7(2):118129. PubMed doi:10.1177/1099800405280823

  • 9.

    Wu LL, Chiou CC, Chang PY, Wu JT. Urinary 8-OHdG: a marker of oxidative stress to DNA and a risk factor for cancer, atherosclerosis and diabetics. Clin Chim Acta. 2004;339(1):19. doi:10.1016/j.cccn.2003.09.010

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Pinto BM, Goldstein MG, Marcus BH. Activity counseling by primary care physicians. Prev Med. 1998;27(4):506513. PubMed doi:10.1006/pmed.1998.0335

  • 11.

    Baker PRA, Francis DP, Soares J, Weightman AL, Foster C. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity. Sao Paulo Med J. 2011;129(6):436437. doi:10.1590/S1516-31802011000600013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Little P, Dorward M, Gralton S, et al. A randomised controlled trial of three pragmatic approaches to initiate increased physical activity in sedentary patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Br J Gen Pract. 2004;54(500):189. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Zunft HJF, Friebe D, Seppelt B, et al. Perceived benefits and barriers to physical activity in a nationally representative sample in the European Union. Public Health Nutr. 1999;2(1A):153160. PubMed doi:10.1017/S1368980099000208

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Rosenstock IM. The health belief model and preventive health behavior. Health Educ Monogr. 1974;2:354386. doi:10.1177/109019817400200405

  • 15.

    Carpenter CJ. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of health belief model variables in predicting behavior. Health Commun. 2010;25:661669. PubMed doi:10.1080/10410236.2010.521906

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Ajzen I. Attitudes, Personality, and Behavior. Chicago, IL: Dorsey; 1988.

  • 17.

    Juniper KC, Oman RF, Hamm RM, Kerby DS. The relationships among constructs in the health belief model and the transtheoretical model among African-American college women for physical activity. Am J Health Promot. 2004;18(5):354357. PubMed doi:10.4278/0890-1171-18.5.354

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Raudsepp L, Viira R, Hannus A. Prediction of physical activity intention and behavior in a longitudinal sample of adolescent girls. Percept Mot Skills. 2010;110(1):318. PubMed doi:10.2466/pms.110.1.3-18

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Hankonen N, Absetz P, Ghisletta P, Renner B, Uutela A. Gender differences in social cognitive determinants of exercise adoption. Psychol Health. 2010;25(1):5569. PubMed doi:10.1080/08870440902736972

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Evans RI. Smoking in children: developing a social psychological strategy of deterrence. Prev Med. 1976;5(1):122127. PubMed doi:10.1016/0091-7435(76)90015-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Evans RI, Rozelle RM, Maxwell SE, et al. Social modeling films to deter smoking in adolescents: results of a three-year field investigation. J Appl Psychol. 1981;66(4):399414. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.66.4.399

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Duryea EJ, Ransom MV, English G. Psychological immunization: theory, research, and current health behavior applications. Health Educ Behav. 1990;17(2):169178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Olley DB, Abbas M, Gidron Y. The effects of psychological inoculation on cognitive barriers against condom use in women with HIV: a controlled pilot study. SAHARA J. 2011;8(1):2732. PubMed doi:10.1080/17290376.2011.9724981

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Gidron Y, Slor Z, Toderas S, Herz G, Friedman S. Effects of psychological inoculation on indirect road hostility and simulated driving. Transp Res Part F Traffic Psychol Behav. 2015;30:153162. doi:10.1016/j.trf.2015.01.012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Health Survey for England 2003, latest trends. Department of Health. 2003. www.dh.gov.uk/PublicationsAndStatistics/PublishedSurvey/HealthSurveyforEngland/fs/en.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Paffenbarger RS, Wing AL, Hyde RT. Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;108(3):161175. PubMed doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112608

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Chisholm D, Collis ML, Kulak LL, Davenport W, Gruber N. Physical activity readiness. Br J Col Med. 1975;17:375376.

  • 28.

    Marcus BH, Rossi JS, Selby VC, Niaura RS, Abrams DB. The stages and processes of exercise adoption and maintenance in a worksite sample. Health Psychol. 1992;11(6):386395. PubMed doi:10.1037/0278-6133.11.6.386

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC. Transtheoretical therapy: toward a more integrative model of change. Psychother Theory Res Pract. 1982;19(3):276288. doi:10.1037/h0088437

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Sallis JF, Hofstetter RC, Faucher P, et al. A multivariate study of determinants of vigorous exercise in a community sample. Prev Med. 1989;18(1):2034. PubMed doi:10.1016/0091-7435(89)90051-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Mancuso CA, Choi TN, Westermann H, Briggs WM, Wenderoth S, Charlson ME. Measuring physical activity in asthma patients: two-minute walk test, repeated chair rise test, and self-reported energy expenditure. J Asthma. 2007;44(4):333340. PubMed doi:10.1080/02770900701344413

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Hills AP, Byrne NM. State of the science: a focus on physical activity. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2006;15(suppl):4048.

  • 33.

    Rovet JF, Ehrlich R. Psychoeducational outcome in children with early-treated congenital hypothyroidism. Pediatrics. 2000;105(3):515522. doi:10.1542/peds.105.3.515

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Craig C, Marshall A, Sjöström M, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(8):13811395. PubMed doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Wilcox S, Der Ananian C, Abbott J, et al. Perceived exercise barriers, enablers, and benefits among exercising and nonexercising adults with arthritis: results from a qualitative study. Arthritis Care Res. 2006;55(4):616627. doi:10.1002/art.22098

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Jones R. How to stick with exercise. 2007. http://www.ronjones.org/Handouts/SelfEfficacy&Exercise.pdf. Accessed September 23, 2013.

    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Botvin GJ. Preventing drug abuse in schools: social and competence enhancement approaches targeting individual-level etiologic factors. Addict Behav. 2000;25(6):887897. PubMed doi:10.1016/S0306-4603(00)00119-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Rzewnicki R, Auweele YV, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Addressing overreporting on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) telephone survey with a population sample. Public Health Nutr. 2003;6(3):299306. PubMed doi:10.1079/PHN2002427

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Axsom D, Cooper J. Cognitive dissonance and psychotherapy: the role of effort justification in inducing weight loss. J Exp Soc Psychol. 1985;21(2):149160. doi:10.1016/0022-1031(85)90012-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Ozer EM, Bandura A. Mechanisms governing empowerment effects: a self-efficacy analysis. J Person Soc Psychol. 1990;58(3):472486. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.58.3.472

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 155 146 6
Full Text Views 1 1 0
PDF Downloads 1 1 0