Accelerometry-Derived Physical Activity Correlations Between Parents and Their Fourth-Grade Child Are Specific to Time of Day and Activity Level

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $119.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $159.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $227.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $302.00

Background: The purpose of this study was to employ high-frequency accelerometry to explore parent–child physical activity (PA) relationships across a free-living sample. Methods: We recorded 7 days of wrist-mounted accelerometry data from 168 dyads of elementary-aged children and their parents. Using a custom MATLAB program (Natick, MA), we summed child and parent accelerations over 1 and 60 seconds, respectively, and applied published cut points to determine the amount of time spent in moderate–vigorous PA (MVPA). Bivariate and partial correlations examined parent–child relationships between percentage of time spent in MVPA. Results: Weak to moderate positive correlations were observed before school (r = .326, P < .001), after school (r = .176, P = .023), during the evening (r = .213, P = .006), and on weekends (r = .231, P = .003). Partial correlations controlling for parent–child MVPA revealed significant relationships during the school day (r = .185, P = .017), before school (r = .315, P < .001), and on weekends (r = .266, P = .001). In addition, parents of more active children were significantly more active than parents of less active children during the evening. Conclusions: These data suggest that there is some association between parent–child PA, especially before school and on weekends. Future interventions aiming to increase PA among adults and children must consider patterns of MVPA specific to children and parents and target them accordingly.

Strutz is with the Colorado School of Public Health, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. Browning is with Nike, Beaverton, OR. Smith is with the Dept of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO. Lohse is with Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY. Cunningham-Sabo is with the Dept of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

Cunningham-Sabo (Leslie.Cunningham-Sabo@colostate.edu) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Janssen I, Leblanc AG. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010;7(40):14795868.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Pate RR, Pratt SN, Blair SN. Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA. 1995;273:402407. PubMed doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520290054029

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Troiano R, Berrigan D, Dodd K, Masse L, Tilert T, McDowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(1):181188. PubMed doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e31815a51b3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 2005;146(6):732737. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.055

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2011;60(RR-5):176. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Boudreau F, Walthouwer MJ, de Vries H, et al. Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a randomized controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored physical activity intervention for adults from Quebec City. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1038. PubMed doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2364-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Carlson JA, Engelberg JK, Cain KL, et al. Implementing classroom physical activity breaks: associations with student physical activity and classroom behavior. Prev Med. 2015;81:6772. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.08.006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Poirier J, Bennett WL, Jerome GJ, et al. Effectiveness of an activity tracker- and internet-based adaptive walking program for adults: a randomized controlled trial. J Med Internet Res. 2016;18(2):34. PubMed doi:10.2196/jmir.5295

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Van Kann DH, Jansen MW, de Vries SI, de Vries NK, Kremers SP. Active living: development and quasi-experimental evaluation of a school-centered physical activity intervention for primary school children. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1315. PubMed doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2633-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Yildirim M, Arundell L, Cerin E, et al. What helps children to move more at school recess and lunchtime? Mid-intervention results from Transform-Us! Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(3):271277. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092466

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Newton RL Jr, Marker AM, Allen HR, et al. Parent-targeted mobile phone intervention to increase physical activity in sedentary children: randomized pilot trial. JMIR MHealth UHealth. 2014;2(4):e48. PubMed doi:10.2196/mhealth.3420

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Rubin DA, Wilson KS, Wiersma LD, Weiss JW, Rose DJ. Rationale and design of active play @ home: a parent-led physical activity program for children with and without disability. BMC Pediatr. 2014;14(41):14712431.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Golan M, Kaufman V, Shahar DR. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children. Br J Nutr. 2006;95(5):10081015. PubMed doi:10.1079/BJN20061757

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Freedson PS, Evenson S. Familial aggregation in physical activity. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1991;62(4):384389. PubMed doi:10.1080/02701367.1991.10607538

  • 15.

    Fuemmeler BF, Anderson CB, Masse LC. Parent-child relationship of directly measured physical activity. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8(17):14795868.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Esliger DW, Rowlands AV, Hurst TL, Catt M, Murray P, Eston RG. Validation of the GENEA accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(6):10851093. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31820513be

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Rowlands AV. Accelerometer assessment of physical activity in children: an update. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2007;19(3):252266. PubMed doi:10.1123/pes.19.3.252

  • 18.

    Phillips LR, Parfitt G, Rowlands AV. Calibration of the GENEA accelerometer for assessment of physical activity intensity in children. J Sci Med Sport. 2013;16(2):124128. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2012.05.013

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Evenson KR, Wen F. Performance of the ActiGraph accelerometer using a national population-based sample of youth and adults. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:7. PubMed doi:10.1186/s13104-014-0970-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Baquet G, Stratton G, Van Praagh E, Berthoin S. Improving physical activity assessment in prepubertal children with high-frequency accelerometry monitoring: a methodological issue. Prev Med. 2007;44(2):143147. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.10.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Ekelund U, Tomkinson G, Armstrong N. What proportion of youth are physically active? Measurement issues, levels and recent time trends. Br J Sports Med. 2011;45(11):859865. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090190

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Jago R, Fox KR, Page AS, Brockman R, Thompson JL. Parent and child physical activity and sedentary time: do active parents foster active children? BMC Public Health. 2010;10(194):14712458.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Kalakanis LE, Goldfield GS, Paluch RA, Epstein LH. Parental activity as a determinant of activity level and patterns of activity in obese children. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2001;72(3):202209. doi:10.1080/02701367.2001.10608953

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Cunningham-Sabo L, Lohse B, Smith S, et al. Fuel for Fun: a cluster-randomized controlled study of cooking skills, eating behaviors, and physical activity of 4th graders and their families. BMC Public Health. 2016;16(1):444. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3118-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Faucette N, Hovell MF. The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids. Am J Public Health. 1997;87(8):13281334. PubMed doi:10.2105/AJPH.87.8.1328

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Lohse B, Belue R, Smith S, Wamboldt P, Cunningham-Sabo L. About Eating: an online program with evidence of increased food resource management skills for low-income women. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2015;47(3):265272.e1. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2015.01.006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA. 2014;311(8):806814. PubMed doi:10.1001/jama.2014.732

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Ward ZJ, Long MW, Resch SC, et al. Redrawing the US obesity landscape: bias-corrected estimates of state-specific adult obesity prevalence. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(3):e0150735. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0150735

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Trust for America’s Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The state of obesity: states with the highest rates of physical inactivity. 2016. http://stateofobesity.org/lists/least-physically-active-states/. Accessed July 27, 2017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Sherry B, Blanck HM, Galuska DA, Pan L, Dietz WH. Vital signs: state-specific obesity prevalence among adults—United States, 2009. MMWR. 2010;59(30):951955.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Mendoza JA, Watson K, Nguyen N, Cerin E, Baranowski T, Nicklas TA. Active commuting to school and association with physical activity and adiposity among US youth. J Phys Act Health. 2011;8(4):488495. PubMed doi:10.1123/jpah.8.4.488

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Beck J, Chard CA, Hilzendegen C, Hill J, Stroebele-Benschop N. In-school versus out-of-school sedentary behavior patterns in U.S. children. BMC Obes. 2016;3:34.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Brooke HL, Corder K, Atkin AJ, van Sluijs EM. A systematic literature review with meta-analyses of within- and between-day differences in objectively measured physical activity in school-aged children. Sports Med. 2014;44(10):14271438. PubMed. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0215-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Nyberg GA, Nordenfelt AM, Ekelund U, Marcus C. Physical activity patterns measured by accelerometry in 6- to 10-yr-old children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(10):18421848.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Groffik D, Sigmund E, Frömel K, Chmelík F, Nováková Lokvencová P. The contribution of school breaks to the all-day physical activity of 9- and 10-year-old overweight and non-overweight children. Int J Public Health. 2012;57(4):711718. doi:10.1007/s00038-012-0355-z

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Dale C, Corbin CB, Dale KS. Restricting opportunities to be active during school time: do children compensate by increasing physical activity levels after school? Res Q Exerc Sport. 2000;71(3):240248. PubMed doi:10.1080/02701367.2000.10608904

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Dauenhauer BD, Keating XD. The influence of physical education on physical activity levels of urban elementary students. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2011;82(3):512520. PubMed doi:10.1080/02701367.2011.10599784

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Metcalf B, Henley W, Wilkin T. Effectiveness of intervention on physical activity of children: systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials with objectively measured outcomes (EarlyBird 54). BMJ. 2012;345:35888.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Teder M, Mörelius E, Nordwall M, et al. Family-based behavioural intervention program for obese children: an observational study of child and parent lifestyle interpretations. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(8):e71482. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071482

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Viitasalo A, Eloranta A, Lintu N, et al. The effects of a 2-year individualized and family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet in children. Prev Med. 2016;87:8188. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.02.027

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Faith MS, Van Horn L, Appel LJ, et al. Evaluating parents and adult caregivers as “agents of change” for treating obese children: evidence for parent behavior change strategies and research gaps. Circulation. 2012;125:11861207. PubMed doi:10.1161/CIR.0b013e31824607ee

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Golan M, Weizman A, Fainaru M. Impact of treatment for childhood obesity on parental risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Prev Med. 1999;29:519526. PubMed doi:10.1006/pmed.1999.0584

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Wingert K, Zachary DA, Fox M, Gittelsohn J, Surkan P. Child as change agent. The potential of children to increase healthy food purchasing. Appetite. 2014;81:330336. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.appet.2014.06.104

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Erkelenz N, Kobel S, Kettner S, Drenowatz C, Steinacker JM, The Research Group “Join the Healthy Boat–Primary School”. Parental activity as influence on children’s BMI percentiles and physical activity. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13:645650.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 18 0 0
Full Text Views 974 701 48
PDF Downloads 180 80 10