TV Viewing in 60,202 Adults From the National Brazilian Health Survey: Prevalence, Correlates, and Associations With Chronic Diseases

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Background: This study describes the levels and patterns of television (TV) viewing in Brazilian adults and investigates associations of TV viewing with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Methods: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey, a nationally representative survey that was conducted in 2013 (N = 60,202 men and women aged ≥18 y), were used. Information regarding TV viewing, physician diagnoses of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaire. Data on covariables (including chronological age, educational status, skin color, sodium consumption, sugar consumption, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and leisure-time physical activity) were also self-reported. Logistic regression models and population attributable fractions were used for the etiological analyses. Results: The prevalence (95% confidence interval) of >4 hours per day of TV viewing was 12.7% (12.0–13.4) in men and 17.5% (16.8–18.3) in women. Men and women being younger or older, moderately educated, living alone, smoking tobacco, and drinking alcohol were associated with higher reported TV viewing time. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) revealed that >4 hours per day of TV viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes [male: 1.64 (1.23–2.17) and female: 1.33 (1.09–1.63)], hypertension [male: 1.36 (1.14–1.63) and female: 1.20 (1.05–1.37)], and heart disease [male: 1.96 (1.43–2.69) and female: 1.30 (1.00–1.68)]. Exceeding 4 hours per day of TV viewing was responsible for 6.8% of type 2 diabetes, 3.7% of hypertension, and 7.5% of heart disease cases. Conclusions: Independent of covariates, >4 hours per day of TV viewing was associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. High volumes of TV viewing are prevalent and appear to contribute to chronic disease burden.

Werneck, Cyrino, and Ronque are with the Study and Research Group in Metabolism, Nutrition, and Exercise (GEPEMENE), State University of Londrina (UEL), Londrina, Brazil. Werneck is also with the Physical Education Dept, Londrina State University, Londrina, Brazil. Collings is with the Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Bradford, United Kingdom; and the Dept of Health Sciences, University of York, York, United Kingdom. Szwarcwald is with the ICICT, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sardinha is with the Exercise and Health Laboratory, Faculty of Human Kinetics, CIPER, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal. Silva is with the Dept of Physical Education, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, Brazil.

Werneck (andreowerneck@gmail.com) is corresponding author.
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