Low- and High-Volume Water-Based Resistance Training Induces Similar Strength and Functional Capacity Improvements in Older Women: A Randomized Study

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $115.00

1 year subscription

USD $153.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $218.00

2 year subscription

USD $285.00

Background: Water-based resistance training (WRT) has been indicated to promote strength gains in elderly population. However, no study has compared different training strategies to identify the most efficient one. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 WRT strategies on the strength and functional capacity of older women. Methods: In total, 36 women were randomly allocated to training groups: simple set of 30 seconds [1 × 30s; 66.41 (1.36) y; n = 12], multiple sets of 10 seconds [3 × 10s; 66.50 (1.43) y; n = 11], and simple set of 10 seconds [1 × 10s; 65.23 (1.09) y; n = 13]. Training lasted for 12 weeks. The maximal dynamic strength (in kilograms) and muscular endurance (number of repetitions) of knee extension, knee flexion, elbow flexion, and bench press, as well as functional capacity (number of repetitions), were evaluated. Results: All types of training promoted similar gains in maximal dynamic strength of knee extension and flexion as well as elbow flexion. Only the 1 × 30s and 1 × 10s groups presented increments in bench press maximal strength. All 3 groups showed increases in muscular endurance in all exercises and functional capacity. Conclusions: WRT using long- or short-duration simple sets promotes the same gains in strength and functional capacity in older women as does WRT using multiple sets.

Delevatti, Prado, Bagatini, Simmer, Meinerz, Barroso, Costa, Kanitz, and Kruel are with the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Delevatti is also with the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Prado is also with the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Reichert is with the School of Physical Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Kanitz is also with the Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Reichert (thais_reichert@hotmail.com) is corresponding author.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Charlier RKnaeps SMertens Eet al. Age-related decline in muscle mass and muscle function in Flemish Caucasians: a 10-year follow-up. Age. 2016;38(2):36. PubMed doi:10.1007/s11357-016-9900-7

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Frontera WRHughes VALutz KJEvans WJ. A cross-sectional study of muscle strength and mass in 45- to 78-yr-old men and women. J Appl Physiol. 1991;71(2):644650. PubMed doi:10.1152/jappl.1991.71.2.644

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Frontera WRHughes VAFielding RAFiatarone MAEvans WJRoubenoff R. Aging of skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88(4):13211326. PubMed doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.88.4.1321

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Goodpaster BHPark SWHarris TBet al. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61:10591064. PubMed doi:10.1093/gerona/61.10.1059

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Janssen IHeymsfield SBWang ZMRoss R. Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18–88 yr. J Appl Physiol. 2000;89(1):8188. PubMed doi:10.1152/jappl.2000.89.1.81

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Doherty TJ. Invited review: aging and sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol. 2003;95(4):17171727. PubMed doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00347.2003

  • 7.

    Manini TMClark BC. Dynapenia and aging: an update. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2012;67(1):2840. PubMed doi:10.1093/gerona/glr010

  • 8.

    Visser MGoodpaster BHKritchevsky SBet al. Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60(3):324333. PubMed doi:10.1093/gerona/60.3.324

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Ruiz JRSui XLobelo Fet al. Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2008;337:439.

  • 10.

    American College of Sports Medicine. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:687708. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181915670

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Alberton CLTartaruga MPPinto SSet al. Vertical ground reaction force during water exercises performed at different intensities. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34(10):881887. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-0032-1331757

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Alberton CLPinto SSCadore ELet al. Oxygen uptake, muscle activity and ground reaction force during water aerobic exercises. Int J Sports Med. 2014;35(14):11611169. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-0034-1383597

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Chu KSRhodes EC. Physical and cardiovascular changes associated with deep water running in the young. Sports Med. 2001;31(1):3346. PubMed doi:10.2165/00007256-200131010-00003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Epstein M. Renal effects of head-out water immersion in humans: a 15-year update. Physiol Rev. 1992;72(3):563621. PubMed doi:10.1152/physrev.1992.72.3.563

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Pendergast DRMoon REKrasney JJHeld HEZamparo P. Human physiology in an aquatic environment. Compr Physiol. 2015;5:17051750. PubMed

  • 16.

    Bento PCPereira GUgrinowitsch CRodacki AL. The effects of a water-based exercise program on strength and functionality of older adults. J Aging Phys Act. 2012;20(4):469483. doi:10.1123/japa.20.4.469

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Bento PCRodacki AL. Muscle function in aged women in response to a water-based exercises program and progressive resistance training. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2015;15(11):11931200. PubMed doi:10.1111/ggi.12418

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Kanitz ACDelevatti RSReichert Tet al. Effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults. Exp Gerontol. 2015;64:5561. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.exger.2015.02.013

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Prado AKReichert TConceição MODelevatti RSKanitz ACKruel LF. Effects of aquatic exercise on muscle strength in young and elderly adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials [published online ahead of print August 26 2016]. J Strength Cond Res. 2016. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001595.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Takeshima NRogers MEWatanabe Eet al. Water based exercise improves health-related aspects of fitness in older women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(3):544551. PubMed doi:10.1097/00005768-200203000-00024

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Tsourlou TBenik ADipla KZafeiridis AKellis S. The effects of a twenty-four-week aquatic training program on muscular strength performance in healthy elderly women. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(1):811818.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Alexander R. Mechanic and energetics of animal locomotion. In: Alexander RGoldspink G eds. Swimming. London, UK: Chapman & Hall; 1977:222248.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Buttelli ACPinto SSSchoenell MCet al. Effects of single vs multiple sets water-based resistance training on maximal dynamic strength in young men. J Hum Kinet. 2015;14(47):169177.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Schoenell MCAlberton CLTiggemann CLet al. Effects of single vs multiple sets during 10 weeks of water-based resistance training on neuromuscular adaptations in young women. Int J Sports Med. 2016;37(10):813818. PubMed doi:10.1055/s-0042-106299

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Petroski EL. Desenvolvimento e validação de equações generalizadas para a estimativa da densidade corporal em adultos. [Tese de Doutorado]. Santa Maria, CA: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; 1995.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Siri WE. Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. Nutrition. 1993;9(5):480491. PubMed

  • 27.

    Lombardi VP. Beginning Weight Training: The Safe and Effective Way. Dubuque, IA: W.C. Brown; 1989.

  • 28.

    Rikli REJones DJ. Development and validation of a functional fitness test for community-residing older adults. J Aging Phys Act. 1999;7:129161. doi:10.1123/japa.7.2.129

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Barroso BM. Efeitos de um treinamento de força no meio aquático sobre parâmetros cinemáticos do exercício de extensão e flexão de joelho em mulheres idosas. Congresso Brasileiro de Metabolismo, Nutrição e Exercício62016. Londrina. Anais 192 2016. Unpublished data.

    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Fröhlich MEmrich ESchmidtbleicher D. Outcome effects of single-set versus multiple-set training—an advanced replication study. Res Sports Med. 2010;18(3):157175. doi:10.1080/15438620903321045

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Hughes VAFrontera WRWood Met al. Longitudinal muscle strength changes in older adults: influence of muscle mass, physical activity, and health. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56(5):B209217. doi:10.1093/gerona/56.5.B209

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Delmonico MJHarris TBVisser Met al. Longitudinal study of muscle strength, quality, and adipose tissue infiltration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(6):15791585. PubMed doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.28047

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Kojima NKim MSaito Ket al. Lifestyle-related factors contributing to decline in knee extension strength among elderly women: a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(7):e0132523. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0132523

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Rantanen T. Muscle strength, disability and mortality. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2003;13(1):38. PubMed doi:10.1034/j.1600-0838.2003.00298.x

Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 94 94 54
Full Text Views 11 11 8
PDF Downloads 4 4 4
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar